Antiquities in Egypt

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EGYPTIAN Civilization

The Egyptian civilization, or the so-called Pharaonic civilization, is considered one of the most important civilizations in history, given the importance of artifacts and the artistic, architectural and cultural heritage left by this civilization, which has become the focus of attention of the world, as the Egyptian civilization has several advantages, including:

  • The oldest civilization in the world, with a history of approximately seven thousand years, and this is what distinguishes it from the rest of the world’s civilizations.
  • The civilization that discovered papyrus is the oldest writing paper in history.
  • The only civilization in which three written languages ​​were discovered, planned most of its cultural and intellectual production.
  • One of the ancient Egyptian civilizations was characterized by the so-called books of the dead.
  • It affected all world civilizations, as it is the only civilization that has lived through all civilizations, such as the Babylonian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Chinese, Greek, Indian and Roman civilizations.

Antiquities of Egypt throughout history

Egypt went through four different time periods, and each era had its own effects and features, and we will talk here about the four eras and their effects from the oldest to the most recent:

Pharaonic antiquities

The Pharaonic civilization has been distinguished by its contemplation of all other civilizations throughout history, which makes its effects spread throughout the world, and the following are the most important pharaonic monuments in Egypt:

  • Giza Pyramids: It includes the three well-known pyramids (Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure), and this is a brief explanation of each of the three pyramids:
  • Khufu: It is considered one of the seven wonders of the world, and the greatest building in the world, it was built almost in 2650 BC, built by the engineer (Ham Ono), and the length of each side of it is 230 meters, and the height of 137 meters, and what distinguishes this pyramid was that it was built using a method of air pressure And it took about 230,000 stones to build it.
  • Khafra: Built by King Khafra, the son of King Khufu, it is 143.5 meters high, and the length of each side is 215.5 meters, as King Khafra gave him the name (the Great).
  • Menkaure: Built by King Menkaure, the son of King Khafraa, it is 66.5 meters long, and the length of each side is 108.5 meters, and Menkaure has been called (Holy).
  • Statue of the Sphinx: Sculpted by King Khafra, with a human head and a lion’s body 4,500 years ago, it was carved from limestone and is 48 meters long.
  • Obelisk of Senusert: It is one of the most important monuments of the ancient city of En, or what is now known as Ain Shams.
  • Saqqara Region: It is located 35 km southwest of Giza. It contains some of the pyramids of the kings of the third, fifth, and sixth dynasties. Among the most famous monuments of this region is the Step Pyramid of Djoser.
  • Dahshur region: It is located to the south of Memphis Cemetery. It contains several important monuments, the most important of which are the curved pyramid and the Red Pyramid.
  • Tarkhan: contains small cemeteries of the first family, the necropolis of the first and second families, and a mastaba from the era of the first family.
  • The Pyramid of Sella: It is located in Fayoum, built in the form of a stepped structure, and its era dates back to the third family.
  • The Temple of Qasr Al-Sagha: It is located north of Qarun Lake, it was built of limestone and sandstone, and its area is 180 meters.
  • Cayman Fares: considered to be the origin of the city of Fayoum, containing the temple of the god Sabak, a statue of the Third Donors, bronze coins, and figurines of pottery.
  • Hawara Pyramid: located in the city of Fayoum, brick was used in its construction, and it was covered with limestone, the height of 58 meters, and the length of each side of it 100 meters.
  • The Laurentian Palace: It is known as the Temple of Amenemhat the Third. It is located in the city of Fayoum, and contains approximately 300 rooms, built next to the Pyramid of Hawara, surrounded by one wall.
  • The tomb of Princess Nefro Petah: located in the city of Fayoum, built of limestone, containing a granite sarcophagus, a table and three silver vessels, and a necklace for Princess Nefro Petah.
  • The Pyramid of Lahaun: located in Fayoum, this pyramid was built of brick and was covered with limestone, and its height is 48 meters, built by King Senusert II, and contains the golden descend of the king’s crown, and the tomb of Princess Sat Hathor.

Coptic monuments

  • the hanging Church.
  • St. Barbara’s Church.
  • Abi Sarraj Church.
  • Monastery of the nuns girls.
  • Basil Church of the Basil.
  • Mary Gerges Church.
  • Church of St. Marcius Abu Seifin.
  • Deir Al-Azab.
  • The Archangel Monastery.
  • St. Catherine’s Monastery.

Greek monuments

One of the most important Greek Roman ruins in Egypt is the Babylon Fortress, and this fortress is considered a military building that was built as a defense line for the eastern gate of Egypt, and among other Greek monuments (Babylon Castle), an area of ​​half a square kilometer, and contains the Coptic Museum and six churches and a monastery.

Islamic antiquities

  • Mosque of Amr ibn al-As.
  • Al-Azhar Mosque.
  • Muhammad Ali Mosque.
  • Mosque of Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun.
  • Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle.
  • Nile scale by kindergarten.
  • Al-Rifai Mosque.
  • Ahmed bin Tulun Mosque.
  • Sultan Barquq Mosque.
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Examples of archeology of ancient civilizations studied by archaeologists

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