Crete is one of the largest Greek islands, and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean, overlooking the southern Aegean Sea. Crete is considered one of the most important islands in Greece from the historical and civilizational point of view. The Arabs called it “Qretriq”, while the Turks called it “Gazit”.
Crete is a rectangular land with a length from east to west about two hundred and fifty five kilometers, and a width of fifty kilometers, while the total area of the island is about eight thousand three hundred and thirty one kilometers, and the highest peak in it reaches two thousand four hundred and fifty six meters represented by the mountains of Idi Urus. The island is surrounded by a number of coastal plains, through which a number of short, fast flowing rivers pass.
Life arose on the island since ancient times, when the Minoan civilization that was attributed to (Minos) the legendary king, who worked on the establishment of a civilization in it for nearly four thousand years, was established on its land, which was characterized by the beauty of its construction and palaces, and it reached to it the power to extend its control over The entire Aegean Sea, and many of the features of this civilization are still fresh today.
Crete remained subordinate to the Byzantine Empire until it was opened by Abu Hafs Omar Al-Balout Al-Andalusi, and it established a subordinate suburb of it for him, but it did not last long, as the Byzantine Emperor Nqfur Al-Thani worked to restore it from the year nine hundred and sixty-one AD. The island fell during the Fourth Crusade in the year thousand Two hundred and four by the hand of the Venetians, then it fell under the hands of the Ottoman rule and continued in this case for a number of centuries until the year one thousand nine hundred and thirteen, when it was annexed to Greece. The island is located within the eastern basin of the Mediterranean, whose capital is Candia (the trench) which was called the Andean Sion in the judgment of the island, and was recently replaced by becoming Heracleion.
The climate and inhabitants of the island
There are two Mediterranean and North African climatic regions on the island, the climate of the Qarqitash region as the Arabs call it is moderate, its humidity increases in some periods, depending on the proximity of the sea. Its winter is characterized by its gentleness and moderation, and it is snowed on its high mountains.
The average temperature in the summer season ranges between twenty to thirty degrees Celsius, according to the Mediterranean climate region.
As for the southern coast, which includes the mountains of Asturusia and the Misara Forest, it is located within the North African climatic zone, which is characterized by higher rates during the summer period and more sunny days. One of the best seasons to visit is the fall and spring seasons. The island is inhabited by more than eight hundred thousand people, working in the field of agriculture, and the most important agricultural crops of the island are corn, wheat, olives, citrus and grapes, and its inhabitants are engaged in hunting and a number of other marine crafts in addition to trade, grazing and traditional industries.