The Egyptian civilization is considered one of the oldest civilizations that existed on the face of the earth and also from the most ancient, as the ancient pharaohs reached advanced stages in many sciences, especially in medicine and architecture, and we can see this through the effects that they left and which still exist to this day such as Great pyramids, mummies, sphinx, and numerous statues found in Egyptian tombs. These monuments have a great historical value, as there is no region in Egypt except that it contains one of the effects of the ancient pharaohs.
There are many monuments found in Egypt that indicate the greatness of this country and its ancient history. Among these unique monuments are the following:
It is a mythical statue of a creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human being, and it was completely carved from limestone, and archaeologists suggest that it was covered with gypsum colored layers, as the traces of these colors are still lightly visible next to his ears.
The Great Sphinx is located in Giza Governorate, specifically on the Giza Plateau, where it was previously believed that he was guarding this plateau, which contains the three pyramids, and that it was built in this way because it represents King Khafra, which combines the power of the lion and the wisdom of man.
This statue is one of the largest ancient sculptures, as it rises 20 meters from the surface of the earth and is 19.3 meters wide. The statue faces a temple where some religious rituals were performed, and for this reason the Egyptians believed that it represented the sun god (Horm Akht).
Three pyramids are located in the Giza region, and they were considered one of the seven wonders of the world due to the achievement and the architectural intelligence that appeared in their construction. The pyramids were named after the three kings of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure:
- The pyramid of Khufu: It is the first of the three pyramids, and this name was named after King Khufu, the second king of the Fourth Dynasty in the reign. This pyramid was built of limestone, which is the original stone in the Giza region and has two entrances. The first entrance is located to the north, at an altitude of 20 meters from the surface of the earth. : This entrance leads to a vestibule, which in turn leads to an underground room. This pyramid also contains a burial chamber, which contains a granite sarcophagus of King Khufu, and there are openings on the north and south walls for ventilation.
- Khafre’s Pyramid: It is the second pyramid in the pyramids group, and it was built on the ground level, it contains a burial chamber which is located in the middle of the pyramid, and has a limestone roof and a royal sarcophagus made of granite.
- Menkaure Pyramid: It is the third and the smallest of the three pyramids. It is located on the edge of the sloping plateau and is 66 meters long. The bottom of the pyramid was covered with pink granite stone, the burial chamber was cut in the rock at the bottom of the pyramid, and closed by stone granite blocks, lowered from the ceiling.