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Jordan is a democratic, monarchy country, where the system of government is inherited by the royal family, and Jordan is distinguished by its origin on Arab unity, as it is characterized by moderation and stability, as it includes many religions, languages, and different races, all of which merge together to form a Jordanian unit. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 AD by Prince Abdullah I Bin Al-Hussein, and in 1946, Jordan gained independence from Britain.
Jordan consists of several administrative governorates, which include a number of sub-regions and provinces, with the number of governorates reaching twelve governorates, namely Amman (the capital), Irbid, Zarqa, Mafraq, Ajloun, Jarash, Madaba, Balqa, Karak, Tafilah, and Maan And Aqaba, and population statistics for the year 2015 AD indicate that the population of Jordan reached approximately 9,531,712 people.

Jordan Antiquities

Jordan includes many distinct archaeological areas, the most important of which are:

  • Umm Qais: Umm Qais is located in the northwestern part of Jordan, specifically in the hills above the Jordan Valley, and was formerly called the city of Jadara, and despite the change of its name, it still maintains ruins from the ancient city, and Umm Qais is distinguished by its geographical location, as it overlooks Jordan, Syria, and Palestine.
  • Ajloun Castle: Ajloun Castle is located on Jabal Auf and reaches a length of 1,250 meters, and Ajloun Castle occupies an important strategic location that was targeted to defend against the Crusaders, due to the fact that it reveals the Crusaders Castle (Belvoir), as it overlooks the Jordan Valley.
  • Jerash: Jerash was called an ancient Grassa, it is located about 50 kilometers north of the capital, and Jerash is famous for its monuments left by the Romens after them, which are characterized by urban planning, as it includes Hadrian’s huge arch that was built to celebrate the visit of the Emperor, two runways, the Temple of Artemis and the vast oval forum that encircles it High-profile columns.
  • Madaba (English: Madaba): Madaba is considered a famous and very important city, due to the fact that it is an ancient archeological city, where Byzantines and Umayyads inhabited it, and they left behind a group of mosaics, as there is the oldest map of the Holy Land, which is still in the Orthodox Church in St. George, where the painting was designed from mosaics With an area of ​​16 x 5 square meters.
  • Petra (in English: Petra): The capital of the Arab Nabateans is ancient and known as the Pink City, due to the color of its carved rocks, which highlight ancient cultures and civilizations, and Petra was registered as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
  • Umrah Palace (English: Quseir Amra): The Umrah Palace located in the east of Jordan in Zarqa Governorate is a distinctive cultural site, and it has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, and the establishment of the Umrah Palace dates back to the eighth century, which is a desert castle that has been subject to numerous repairs by the departments concerned with archaeological areas, and by Many organizations.
  • Um er-Rasas: Umm Al-Rasas is one of the ancient archaeological sites that were built in the fifth century, as it is characterized by architecture that dates back to the Islamic and Byzantine times, and was a military base of the Romen Army, due to its strategic location that is easily accessible, where Umm Al-Rasas is located in the dependent Jordanian desert To the capital, Amman.
  • Karak Castle: Al-Karak is located on the road between Al-Shoubak and Al-Quds, and this is the reason for building Al-Karak Castle, where Al-Karak Castle was built in 1132 AD by the Crusader king Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, and the Mamluk Sultan Baybars restored the castle in the late thirteenth century.

Geography of Jordan

Jordan’s climate is desert to moderate, and its lands are classified into arid or semi-arid lands, and the duration of seasons varies in it, as the summer season is long relative to the winter season, due to the geographical location of Jordan between latitude 33 ° and 29 ° north, and longitudes 39 ° And 34 ° east, and Jordan is bordered by five Arab countries, with Syria bordering to the north, Iraq to the east, and Palestine to the west, while Saudi Arabia occupies the south, and it shares with Egypt in the Gulf of Aqaba, as Aqaba port is the only sea port, and Jordan’s area reaches 89,213 km Square, with a water area of ​​up to 329 km Square liters.

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