Syrian Antiquities

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Syria

The Syrian Arab Republic and its capital, Damascus, are located in the western part of the continent of Asia, which includes fourteen provinces, and occupies an area of ​​185,180 square kilometers, and the reason for its name is due to several narrations where it is said that it is related to the Assyrian kingdom in which it lived, with the replacement of the letter of Sinn with a sin, and there Another narration says that it belongs to Sam Bin Noah, peace be upon him, and from here the capital was named to the Levant. Historical discoveries and studies have shown that Syria is one of the oldest countries that have included human monuments, dating back more than two million years, and the civilizations that followed On its soil, like the Aramean civilization, Byzantine and Roman, this is in addition to Islamic civilizations such as the Abbasids and Umayyads, the last of which was the Ottoman Empire, which ended with the end of the First World War, as it was subjected to the French occupation, but it declared its independence in the year 1920 AD, and there was an appetite for Syria because of its strategic location, fertile lands, and as a result, it contains On many historical monuments, and in this article we will talk about the most important Syrian antiquities.

Syria Antiquities

There are many important monuments found in Syria, the most important of which are:

The Umayyad Mosque

The Umayyad Mosque is located in the center of the old city in Damascus, where it was a market for goods in antiquity, then it became a temple for the Arameans of God was identified, and in the first century AD when the Roman Empire conquered Syria, it built a temple for their gods as it was called Jupiter, then it was developed To become a Roman church, and with the introduction of the Islamic caliphate to Syria, specifically in the Umayyad caliphate, and the church was divided into two halves, the other half was converted into a mosque, until the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik presented the entire construction of the mosque, and it took him about The 10 years and got up Thoith mosaics, it was in the year 705 AD.

The Umayyad Mosque includes four domes, one large and three others in the nave of the mosque, and it also has three minarets and four doors, and it is worth noting that in the year 2001 AD, Pope John Paul II entered this mosque, and this incident was unique, as it is the first mosque Which is entered by Christian clergy in modern times.

Monastery of Mar Musa al-Habashi

This monastery belongs to the Syriac Church, where it was built in the sixth century AD, where it is located in the Qalamoun area and is about 80 km from the Syrian capital Damascus in the northern part, where it is characterized by its beautiful design and distinctive wall engravings, and drawings that fill it, in addition to the crosses engraved and hung on The doors of the church are in the monastery, and it is worth noting that this monastery was renovated and restored in the year 1556 AD. The monastery contains three galleries along its length from the western to the eastern side, which contain a large mihrab, and also includes a dome topped by a large window.

Damascus Castle

This castle got its name from its location, where it is located in the northern side of the Syrian capital, Damascus, where the area of ​​this historic castle is about 33176 square meters, was built by Atsz bin Awq in the year 1076 AD, during the reign of the Seljuk Kingdom, but in the Ayyubid era, This castle was expanded by the brother of Salahuddin King Abu Bakr bin Ayoub, where the caliphate was located, but after the caliphate was transferred to Egypt, and in the Mamluk caliphate in the year 1506 AD, the castle became the seat of the rulers when they came to examine the situation in Syria. Surrounded by a 20-meter trench, the castle has three gates in addition to twelve towers.

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