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Sports is one of the most widespread and popular activities of all kinds. Sport has been a subject of great concern to peoples throughout different eras of history, and its importance extends in the military, educational and biological aspects. It is an entertaining and enthusiastic way for people to practice and watch them in large numbers.
The origins of stadiums
The origin of the word stadium came from the city of Olympia in ancient Greece, as the Greeks in the sixth century BC practiced many sports games, and they performed festivals and religious festivals in the squares. They also used wide arenas to conduct races, and the required distance was usually 192 square meters. This number constitutes a fixed unit called a stadium, and they called the wide sports venues the name of a stadium. The Greek stadiums were very large, accommodating a large number of spectators, and some of them still exist today, such as the Colosseum, which was built in the year 70 AD to practice various sports in it.
The world’s largest stadiums
There are many stadiums that have a great capacity to accommodate an enthusiastic and large audience, and here comes a mention of the most prominent of these stadiums.
Rongrado Mayday Stadium
The Rongrado Mayday Stadium is the largest stadium in the world, with a capacity of 150,000 spectators. The stadium is located in the center of Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. It was built in 1989 on the occasion of the thirteenth international festival for youth and students, and then took place for the annual national celebrations. Currently, sports such as football, gymnastics, exhibition games and national festivals are held. The stadium is designed in the form of a magnolia flower or in the form of a canopy, as the design contains 16 arcs arrayed in the form of a ring.
It is a ground tennis or cricket ground, and is the largest cricket stadium in the world, and the largest stadium in Australia, with a capacity of 100,000 spectators. Melbourne Stadium was built in Australia in 1853 AD, and the first cricket game was held in 1854 AD.
Camp Nou Stadium
Camp Nou can accommodate an audience of 99,354 spectators. It is located in Spain, east of Barcelona. The stadium was opened in 1957 with a match between FC Barcelona and the Polish city of Warsaw. The stadium was first known for its founding in the FC Barcelona stadium, then it became called Camp Nou, the new stadium. The area of the stadium is 55 thousand square meters, and it has 105 exits. Barcelona has announced that the total stadium capacity will reach 105,000 by 2021.
Azteca Stadium has 95 thousand and 500 seats, it is located in the city of Santa Ursula in the Mexican capital Mexico City. It is considered the only stadium that hosted the World Cup match twice, in 1970 and 1986. The stadium is now used for the matches of Mexican and American teams.
Azday Stadium, located in Tehran, the capital of Iran, can seat 100,000 viewers. But the audience was later reduced to 95,225 viewers. The stadium was opened in 1973. Its name was Amir, in honor of the Shah of Iran. Then, after the revolution, it was changed to Azadi Stadium. This stadium is the first stadium in the Middle East to host the Asian Games, and it is one of the largest stadiums in North and Central Asia.
Score City Stadium
The stadium, with a capacity of 94,700 spectators, is located in Johannesburg, South Africa. It was held in 1980 AD at the place where Nelson Mandela delivered his speech after he was released from prison in 1990. It is the first soccer stadium in Africa devoted to football, and the stadium hosted the World Cup match in 2010.
Kinds of sports fields
Sports stadiums are spread in every country, and vary in their shape, purpose and design to match the type of sport in which they will be practiced. It can be classified according to several criteria as follows:
- Function: The stadiums differ in the purpose for which it was established, including therapeutic playgrounds, such as swimming and steam baths, including what is for professional or children’s training. Some stadiums have competitive events, or they may be a recreational venue for sports hobbies.
- Geometric shape: The shape of the stadium varies depending on the game you play in. Rectangular stadiums are designed for soccer, basketball and handball. As for the squares, gymnastics, wrestling, and boxing are practiced. The circular pitch is reserved for discus and discus games, and ground-level stadiums are for athletics. Some of them are closed or open.
- Sport Type: Sports are varied, and they are not played in one place because of their different requirements. Among sports, what is general can include a large audience, such as football and hand, so you need public stadiums, including what needs special stadiums such as archery and horse riding.
- Floor type: There are green or red, black or silver pitches, rubber or tiles.
Stadium construction standards
For the stadium to be suitable for activities, a set of criteria must be observed, including:
- Capacity: The capacity of the stadium must be studied and appropriate to the goal of the building and the level of games hosted therein, according to the FIFA, at least 30 thousand seats is an appropriate number for most international games and matches, but it is preferable that the capacity be 40 thousand.
- Playground dimensions: The dimensions of the arena designated for players must not be less than 105 meters * 68 meters. And that there be an area next to the playing field in order to prepare the players, provided that its dimensions are 125 meters * 85 meters.
- Audience services: The stadium must have at least 20 restroom units to avoid crowding.
- VIP seats: A group of seats is reserved for VIPs, not less than 300 seats.
- Press and media: A zone of no less than 100 square meters must be provided for the press, and a place for television media with a number of no less than 3 and an area of 25 square meters each.