Ways to search for antiquities

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Archeology is a collection of antiquities and is a sign, and it comes in the sense of what was left by the previous ones. Archeology is the science that specializes in studying the history of ancient human civilizations, and it is interested in identifying the remains of previous peoples from a civilization that includes buildings, statues, money and arts, and the term archeology is the translation The word archeology is a Greek word consisting of two syllables, Archaios (Greek: Archaios) and its ancient or ancient meaning, and Logos (Greek: Logos) means a science or a study, and thus becomes the meaning of the term: the science that is concerned with the study of ancient civilizational and material matters.
The word Arkelog appeared to be called on all matters related to the past and ancient issues, then the first appearance of the word Arkelog in the first century AD, and it was referring to a class of representatives of drama in the way of gesture who were representing ancient legends on the stage, and this was common in countries that were speaking the language Greek, then this term disappeared until his return in the seventeenth century A.D. Archaeologists did not agree on a specific meaning and clear effects, but in general can be said that the science that teaches human remnants of archaeological and cultural, and beyond it to the past study of human history in stages, taking into account the tools that were used in his life.
As for the genesis of archeology, it was before Christ, where Homer, who lived during the fifth century BC, was the father of archeology and the first to mention it in his writings, just as the king of Babylon Nabonidid was interested in collecting archaeological artifacts, and after them the interest in archeology began to increase slowly and especially, in The first century AD and beyond, and archeology is an important branch of anthropology, as it is interested in exploring and knowing the nature of human cultures in past ages, and it can be said that archeology as part of anthropology is concerned with the study of ancient man from various aspects that enable knowledge of his culture and Walt Pray to her through different times, and that the proximity or distance in the time that archeology studies has a great role in the difference of the subject matter reached by science through different research operations, and it can be said that modern archeology differs in its connotation from ancient archeology, since the old is concerned with research The treasures are largely about, but the talk is summarized in two basic things: the first is concerned with exploration, research, and access to antiquities, then codifying their descriptions and what distinguishes them and ways to preserve them, and the second is concerned with benefiting from these antiquities in identifying and discovering ancient civilizations and knowing the mechanism of their development and history.

Methods of detection of effects

Archaeological excavation is a method of archeology through which various archaeological artifacts are collected, whether they are buildings, pottery, jewelry, money, or other archaeological materials. Archaeological excavations were known in the past as the search for ancient treasures, where it was He focuses on an adventure by archaeologists to search for treasures and decorate the palaces of rulers or trade in them, then developed the concept of excavation to follow the correct scientific methods related to archeology, and he became interested in searching for all the material waste of the various civilizations, without distinguishing between the impact of clay or gold But count Aha to bone waste collection as well, it has also changed the value of effects, not only limited to physical terms, but has become the information obtained, whether historical, cultural or political, or whatever kind of importance and great value.
The detection of antiquities usually begins with what is known as archaeological survey, which is the effort made by archaeologists, which aims to identify archaeological sites and know the extent of their extension through the use of topographic maps, aerial photos, and various scientific methods that are used to discover archaeological sites, but without any excavation, Then describe the archaeological residues contained therein, whatever their type, whether they are buildings, walls, mineral property, glassware, or pottery.
There are many types of archaeological survey, as there is a comprehensive survey, which is a survey of all parts of the region with its depressions and elevations, and it is the latest type of archaeological survey, and it reveals all kinds of monuments and their forms using modern scientific methods used to detect the effects, as there is an optional or partial survey, and in which a region is chosen Certain archaeological areas are scanned according to the desired goals of the survey, such as the goal of knowing the history of a specific area, and there is the salvage survey, in which areas are surveyed in which large projects are constructed, such as dams and main roads, and from the methods used to detect the Erupted following:

Detection of impacts on land

Among the methods for detecting impacts on land:

Chemical methods

Among the most important chemical methods:

  • Soil chemical analysis: In this method, samples are taken from the soil and thoroughly analyzed. Thus, areas containing rich soil are defined as phosphates, calcium, carbon and nitrogen, as these minerals are formed from waste and waste that the person throws, and through these minerals it is possible to identify sites that contain archaeological samples. Better.
  • Check for pollen: Pollen is what male flowers produce to pollinate female flowers, and if pollen falls during its transfer from one flower to another on soil suitable for its survival, such as clay, acidic or charcoal soils, then it will solidify and fossil, and if it is identified using a microscope and determining its type, it can be That the types of plants that were cultivated at that time be identified, and to determine whether the area is inhabited or not, as it is possible to know the weather conditions that prevailed at that time as well, for example, pine plant lives in cold places while palm trees live in areas Warm and so on.

Geophysical methods

Among the geophysical methods used to detect the effects:

  • Determination of the strength of the magnetic field: It is an easy, fast, and simple way to identify archaeological waste that is less than 6 meters deep from the ground level. This method is based on discovering archaeological materials that possess magnetic properties, such as rocks, or soil that contains in their components iron, or pottery that is originally formed from Iron oxides, and other materials that are buried in the ground, make the magnetic field strength high, and therefore easy to detect using a device known as magnetometer. There are several types of this device, the best of which is the proton magnetometer, which is able to wipe an acre of Earth through four Almost lighters.
  • Acoustic resistance: This method is based on hearing the echoes of the impact on the ground using the resonance device, where the echo varies with the different components of the soil. The echo extent is recorded and drawn on graphs, then studied and analyzed.

X-ray detection methods

Some methods of detecting radiation effects:

  • X ray: X-rays have the ability to penetrate through objects, and the strength of their passage through objects depends on their intensity. These rays have been used since 1985 to detect the effects that lie below the surface layer of the earth, and differ in nature from the soil layer.
  • Cosmic rays: These rays were discovered in 1912 AD, and in 1923 AD scientists called this name, which is a particle that has a very high energy estimated by millions of millions of electronic volts, and it has a miraculous ability to pass through the particles, and its ability to penetrate objects decreases with the increase of the solidity of the particles Although they fall regularly on the surface of the earth from outer space and by the same force in all directions, the amount of their permeability can be estimated through a device known as the spark chamber. These rays were used to locate the burial chamber in the Khafre pyramid, where its location was unknown from Accept, as the rays are She ran out of the room was larger than anywhere else, as the room was less thick than others.

Sphenoidal method

They are copper pegs of 1 m each, 1.25 cm in diameter, and these pegs are implanted into the ground at equal distances between them, then the depth that each wedge reached is calculated, where it is difficult for it to reach a greater depth, and is drawn with lines and graphed However, this method is difficult to use if the rock is of very large depth, and if the soil is muddy, it may also cause damage to the buried monuments.

Mechanical sounding method

It is a hollow metal tube with a diameter of 5-10 cm, which is planted in the ground until it reaches the virgin land, through which the layers and archaeological components of the earth can be determined, and the history and depth of each of them, and this method can destroy parts of the buried monuments or their remnants, therefore They should be minimized in one place.

Prostoscope device

The Nistri Periscope is a drilling machine at the end of which is a photocopy machine, and this device is usually used in the operations of uncovering burials and buried and hollow rooms, where it can be photographed and know everything inside without fully digging it.

Aerial photos

They are pictures taken of the surface of the earth without any lines or symbols, in which all aspects of the surface of the earth appear from water bodies, roads, and residential communities, and they appear in their real size according to the specific scale of the image, and they are of great importance, including studying the changes that the surface of the earth has gone through, and defining Types of rocks and terrestrial minerals and their locations, and they have many uses after they were first used in military and military matters for the first time in 1922 AD, and they are of two types: either they are tilted, or they are vertical, and each has its uses and methods of capturing it.
As for its importance in archeology and detection, it is that it picks up things that the naked eye cannot see, which would show the sites of archaeological sites, and the area they occupy on the surface of the globe, and that is through the colors, for example the colors of the plants that are below them appear Pale archaeological remains, while the plants underneath are fertile, bright color, and this contrast and difference in color tones can not be seen by the naked eye as precisely as in atmospheric images.

Detect underwater effects

As for the detection of underwater archeology, there are several methods, including:

  • Using diving machines.
  • High Tower of Photography.
  • Spherical chamber of light pressure.
  • Magnetic field measuring machine.
  • Metal detector.
  • TV set.
  • Depth meter with depth.
  • Photography equipment.
  • Sonar device.
  • Telephone booth.


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