Algeria, officially the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, is an Arab country located on the African wing of the Arab world, bordering from the north on the coasts of the Mediterranean, and from the east bordered by Tunisia and Libya, From the south it is bordered by Mali and Niger, and from the west, Morocco and Western Sahara. Algeria has a very large geographical area. It is the largest country on the continent of Africa, and the tenth largest country in the world in terms of area.
Algeria is characterized by having a very strong economy, because of the natural resources that lie in its territory, as it is the sixth largest gas exporting country in the world, and the tenth largest country that possesses natural gas reserves, and in the 16th rank as the largest oil reserves in the world, and in view of its rich natural resources and its location The strategist, Algeria was the ambitious of the French occuAl Bahahn that ruled it for more than a century, and in the fifties of the last century, the Algerian revolution against the French occuAl Bahahn was crowned with success, and Algeria gained full independence on July 5, 1962.
Algiers is the capital of the Algerian Republic, and it is the economic, political and social center of the Republic, and its largest city, from which the name of the Republic of Algeria came. The population of Algiers is 2,988,145 people, according to statistics of 2008. It is thus the largest city in the Algerian Republic in terms of population, while the urban area has a population of more than 3.3 million people. The city includes multiple ethnic groups from the population, including one group of Arabic speakers, and another group that speaks Berbers along with other races, such as the French and sub-Saharan Africans.
Geography of the city of Algeria
The city of Algiers is located in the northern center of the Republic of Algeria, and it overlooks the northern side of the Mediterranean coast. The city is divided into two main parts:
- The old section (Casbah)The Casbah extends over a sloping hill overlooking the sea coast, reaching 122 meters above sea level, making its streets narrow and sloping. The kasbah is made up of a group of buildings dating back to the Ottoman period, and its houses follow the old building system, where they spread around squares surrounded by a fountain or a well.
- New section (waterfront): This section is located on the level of the coast, and its construction dates back to French colonialism, as it used it as a center of government, unlike the Kasbah. The streets of the new section of the city are distinguished by their width and length.
Algiers enjoys a Mediterranean climate that is described in moderation. In the summer, the city sees a rise in temperatures, and August is the hottest month of the year, and the average temperature in it reaches 25.2 degrees Celsius, while winter is characterized by pleasant and relatively low temperatures. January is the coldest month of the year, when its average temperature reaches 11.5 ° C. Winter also witnesses a good rainfall. The months of November and December witness the largest annual rainfall, which reaches an average of 707 mm annually.Read:Where is Crazy Water
History of the city of Algeria
The history of the establishment of the city of Algiers dates back to the third century BC, and the city was founded by the Phoenicians, then the Romens conquered it and became part of the Romen Empire, and called it “Ecumium”. After the fall of the country of Andalusia in 1492 AD, the arrival of Arabs to it began very significantly to escape from Europe, and the number of Arabs living in it increased, and when the Ottoman Empire was established, the city fell under its control in 1511 AD, then after France occupied Algeria, the city fell under the French occuAl Bahahn like all the Algerian cities In the year 1830AD, and during that period, the city formed an important central point for the establishment of the Algerian revolution, after which the country was liberated in 1962AD.
Landmarks of the city of Algeria
Algiers has several landmarks that tell the ancient history that passed through the city, among the most prominent of these are:
- The Kasbah of AlgeriaIt is one of the oldest places in Algiers, and it includes a large number of buildings of an architectural style, monuments dating back to the ancient era, and their importance, they were included in the UNESCO Heritage List in 1992.
- Port of Sidi FaragThe name of this port comes from the Sidi Faraj peninsula, which is located in the west of Algiers, and includes a resort containing tourist facilities such as ships and marine boats. The port was built in a semicircular manner by French engineer Fernand Bouillon at the request of the Algerian government.
- Notre Dame Africa: It is a church located in the Bulogin neighborhood, and was built during 14 years, and it was officially opened in 1872 AD. The church follows the modern Byzantine design, and is famous for the words written on its walls, which are: “Our Lady of Africa, pray for us and for Muslims.”
- Ketchaoua MosqueThis mosque is located in the Kasbah, and it is one of the most famous historical mosques in Algiers. It was originally built as a mosque during the Ottoman period, but it was transformed into a church by order of the French General Duke de Rovigo when the French forces colonized the city.
- The shrine of the martyrIt is a memorial built to commemorate the Algerian revolution and the victims of the war that erupted to liberate Algeria, also known as Riyad al-Fatih. The monument was built in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Algeria.
- experiments GardenThe garden is a natural museum for many plants and trees, and includes a garden designed in the French way, and another garden designed in the British style, and it contains 2,500 types of perennials, in addition to 25 types of palm trees, and has a special climate in it, not less than 15 degrees, Not exceeding 25 ° C.