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Chechnya (Chechnya), and officially the Chechen Republic (English: Chechen Republic) is a republic affiliated with the Russian Federation, located in the southeast of European Russia. The territory of the Republic of Chechnya is part of the Caucasus region, with a total area of 15,800 km2, and Chechnya has lands of a mountainous nature and possesses important natural resources such as oil oil, natural gas, limestone, sulfur, gypsum, and many other minerals.
The population of Chechnya is 1,394,000, according to the statistics of 2015. The majority of the population are descended from Chechnya and Nokhche. Its inhabitants embrace Islam, specifically the Sunni school of thought, and the Caucasian language is spoken by the population.
Chechnya has a long political history, as it was one of the most prominent regions opposed to the Russian invasion of the Caucasus region between 1818-1917 AD, and the Chechen Autonomous Region was established in 1922 AD, and in 1934 AD it became part of the Chechnya-Ingushetia region that turned into a republic in 1936 In 1992, the two regions separated and formed an independent republic, after which Chechnya entered a series of bloody political events.
Grozny is the capital of Chechnya
The capital of Chechnya is the city of Grozny, and it is called in the Chechen language (Соьлжа-Гӏала). It is the largest city in the Chechen Republic, and a third of the population is concentrated. According to estimates in 2015, its population reached 283,700 people. Grozny is the political, administrative, financial, economic and cultural center of Chechnya. It is the central capital of Chechnya. This city was destroyed by the wars it witnessed, but it was rebuilt again, returned to life and growth after the Chechen wars ended, and the relative stability returned to Chechnya. The official religion in the city of Grozny is Islam, specifically the Sunni school of thought.
Grozny is located in the center of the Chechen Republic, and it passes by the Sunza River, which divides it in two, and it is one of the tributaries of the Terik River, at the foothills of the mountains of the northern North Caucasus. Grozny extends over an area of 324 km2, and the city has a moderate continental climate with a cold winter, where it reaches an average The temperature in January reaches -3.2 degrees Celsius, while its summer is long and hot, and the average temperature in July reaches 23.9 degrees Celsius, and there is nothing that protects the city from the cold northern winds, and therefore the winter of the city is cool compared to the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar region.
History of Grozny
The foundation of the city of Grozny dates back to the year 1818 AD when the construction of the Groznaya fortress, which played a pivotal role as the focal point of the Russian Empire during the Caucasus War, was inhabited by the Terek Cossack group, and after the end of the Caucasus War in 1869 AD the region acquired the name Grozny, which means “terror”, and the city grew The discovery of oil in Grozny At the beginning of the twentieth century, the city became the main center of oil in the Russian Caucasus region.
During the period of Soviet rule, the city was periodically inhabited by the Russians, Chechens, and Nokhtshe, and its population was dominated by one of the three races in each period. Soviet socialism in order to cooperate with Nazi Germany, and after Stalin’s death they were allowed to return to the city and the Russians began to leave.
At the end of the USSR, Grozny became the center of the Chechen separatist government headed by Johar Dudayev, and after several attempts to topple Dudayev and return the city to the control of the Russian government, the former Russian President, Boris Yeltsin, ordered the restoration of the power in the city in 1994. The city was subject to the rule of the Russian army after heavy fighting in February 1995, and this led to the destruction of many buildings and infrastructure due to Russian air strikes and artillery shelling, and the city continued to Resisted.
In August 1996, Chechen rebels seized the city in a surprise attack, and the battle ended after the ceasefire, and a peace treaty was signed between Russia and the Chechen Republic in 1997, and Chechnya changed the city’s name to “Dzhokhar” after their first commander, and at that time the Russians all came out Almost from the city. During the second Chechnya war, the city became a major center of fighting again, and was largely destroyed again, until the United Nations launched the title of the most destructive city in Grozny in 2003.
Landmarks of Grozny
Grozny has many landmarks, which are of great tourist and historical importance, among the most prominent of these landmarks:
- Grozny Central Mosque Dome – Akhmad KadyrovIt is the largest mosque in the continent of Europe, known as the heart of Chechnya, and the mosque was named after Ahmed Kadyrov who started its construction, and the design of this mosque is similar to the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, and it has a group of minarets of 62 meters in length. The mosque was officially opened in 2008.
- National Museum of the Chechen Republic: This museum was founded in 1924 AD, and it was a regional museum that has historical and religious symbolism, and in 1936 AD the museum changed to the Chechen-Ingush local history museum after the union of the two regions, then its name became the Museum of the United Chechen State after their separation, and it included 230,000 pieces in the nineties of the last century .
- Sheikh Arsenov MosqueThis mosque is built on a hill, and it has white and green marble walls, and can accommodate 10,000 people. The mosque occupies an area of 14 acres (56,656 square meters) and has four minarets of 63 meters long, which are the longest minarets in Russia.
- St. Michael’s Church: Or Angel Cathedral, is the only church in Chechnya, was founded in the nineteenth century AD, and it is one of the places that were severely destroyed during the Chechen war, and was restored in 2006 AD.
- Grozny city complexIt is a project that is supposed to contain 50 buildings, so far only 8 buildings have been built, and the buildings in this complex have a wonderful view of the entire city from above.