Italy forms a peninsula located on the Mediterranean Sea in the central south side of the continent of Europe, bordered to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea and to the south by the Ionian Sea, and shares its borders with: France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and it forms mountains The Alps have their northern borders, and Italian territory covers an area of 301,340 square kilometers, with a population of about 62.2 million, distributed fairly evenly in most parts of the country. Coastal regions, the Po River Valley, and urban centers are areas of attraction for residents, and geographically Italy In a temperate zone, With a contrast between the northern climate associated with the European continent, and the climate of the south surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea due to the length of the peninsula, the mountainous heights of more than 702 meters occupy more than a third of the area of Italy, where there are two mountain ranges: the Alps and the Apennine Mountains.
Rome is the capital of Italy
The city of Rome – known as the Eternal City – is the capital of the state of Italy more than 2500 years ago, as it was founded in 753 BC, and therefore it is one of the oldest cities to be punished by occupation throughout the ages in the continent of Europe. Through its rich history and its archaeological and religious importance, the city of Rome was a cultural center for the rest of Europe, as it is the third most visited city in the European Union, and the fourteenth in the world.
There are many historical narratives and legends about the name of the city of Rome with this name, it is from these narratives that its name is likely derived from the word (Romon) which is the old name of the Tiber River, where it says that this name was called a small shopping mall that was created on the banks of the Tiber River, while This account refers to linking the name of Rome to one of the monuments that existed at the time, but what is famous of these accounts indicates that its name belongs to the founders of the city, and they are the brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BC, as the two disagreed over the person who will rule the city from them Which led to Romulus killing my brother Remus, and named the city after him, and there are accounts that indicate that this name of the city is due to the name of a woman from the city of Troy called Rome, who left the city after its fall, and resided on the banks of the River Tiber, and led a campaign to attack the ships of Troy, and there was The city of Rome is called by this name, so that it is always associated with the championships that this woman performed.
History of Rome
Since the foundation of many different civilizations since the founding of nearly thirty centuries, the city of Rome was successively established. It soon became the most important city in the world after a few centuries after its foundation in the world, where it became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, then it became the capital of the Romans when their kingdom turned into a republic And after that, it became an empire, thus becoming a commercial, cultural, and political center, and in 1848 the Pope declared a revolution against the Roman Empire, as he announced a new republic, but it was not successful, after the French forces confronted him and suppressed his voice, then E returned E revolutions of the outbreak of a new through what is known as the movement of the unification of Italy.
The establishment of the papal state was announced in 1861 AD, and a decade later, Rome was chosen as the capital of the Italian Kingdom that was created in 1871 AD, and in the same year Rome was chosen as the capital of the new Italian state, and Rome remained the focus of the struggle for power even in the modern era, Mussolini controlled it in 1921 AD, and presented recognition to the Vatican State as an independent state within Rome. When Mussolini’s rule for Rome ended in World War II, the city was transformed into democratic rule, by electing the first mayor in 1993.
The city witnessed a civilized development since its foundation, which appeared in its early beginnings when the Romans built a sewage system as a result of the increasing number of the population of the city at that time, as they designed many water channels and sewage streams for cities, and they also created some water channels, some of which reached a few kilometers, This is to secure the inhabitants of these cities with the water they need in their daily lives, and this development continues to grow and increase at all levels, as many roads that have emerged as important in the military transportation of the Romans were established, and these roads extended from the Euphrates River to the Atlantic Ocean, In addition to the construction of temples and political buildings, these projects were funded from multiple sources, including the military victories achieved by the empire, in addition to the financial returns obtained during the collection of taxes.
Geography of Rome
Location and terrain
Rome is the largest city in Italy, with an area of 1,508 km2, with a population density of 1,894 per square kilometer in 2020. As for its astronomical location, Rome is located between latitude 41 ° 53.5158 ′ north, and longitude 12 ° 30.6798 ′ east, in the central side of The Italian peninsula, specifically on the banks of the Tiber River, which is one of the historic rivers in Europe, and which occupies the second position as the longest river in Italy after the Po River, and the Tiber River originates from the Fumaiolo Mountains and flows to the southern side by a distance of 405 Kilometers heading close to the region of Ostia Antica to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which It is 24 kilometers away from Rome, and despite this distance, the territories of Rome extend to the beaches located in the southwestern region of Ossetia.
Rome has seven main hills located in the Lazio region: Aventine, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Palatine, and Kerinal. Quirinal, and Vimal, and historians state that Romulus probably created a city on the Palatine Plateau, and then small settlements spread to the tops of other hills, each with an independent nature, and with the passage of time many relationships and shared interests arose between These settlements are to build ancient Rome, which subsequently facilitated the path to free growth The business and the development of agricultural activities.
Rome’s climate follows the Mediterranean climate characterized by dry summers, and generally cool and humid winters, with average temperatures reaching 20 degrees Celsius during the day and ten degrees at night. Summer begins in Rome on the seventeenth of June, and ends on the tenth of September, and is characterized by being short, and temperatures rise in most of the time, and the highest temperatures are recorded during the months of July and August, which reaches 30 degrees Celsius, and is the fifth day of August is the warmest day with an average temperature of 18.89-31.67 ° C.
As for the winter season, it starts from the twentieth of November to the seventeenth day of March, and is characterized by its low temperatures, which record on average temperatures less than fifteen degrees Celsius, and January is the coldest month during the winter season, as temperatures drop The temperature is twelve degrees Celsius, and the coldest days in the city of Rome during the year is the thirteenth of January, where the average temperatures are between 2.78-11.67 degrees Celsius, and Rome may witness a slight snowfall in the winter despite This is very rare, and snow falls heavily every time Q almost years, and the moisture in Rome becomes the air is humid by up to at least 13% of the time during the fourteenth of the month of June to the second of the month of October, and the highest rates of moisture per year will be in the twelfth day of the month of August.
Demographics of Rome
The population of the city of Rome reached 4,234,019 people during the year 2020 AD, knowing that 9.5% of the population belongs to non-Italian origins, of whom 4.7% belong to European origins, the most important of which are: Romanian, Ukrainian, Polish, and Albanian, and 4.8% indicate the immigrant population with origins Other than European countries, such as: the Philippines, Bangladesh, Peru, and China, as well as a few hundred Roma with Roma origins living in the camps scattered in the outskirts of the city, and the proportion of homelessness in the majority of non-Italian in the city to nearly 8000 people.
Latin was the old official language spoken only by the inhabitants of the city of Rome, until over time it became the language spoken throughout Western Europe and the official language of government, in addition to many local languages spoken by the various ancient Roman provinces, which facilitated the overlap of the Latin language With other languages to produce a language called romantic languages, which includes: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Romanian. As for today, Italian is the official language in Rome, and Romanian is considered a language Local t used.
The official religion
The majority of the Italian people in general and the inhabitants of the city of Rome in particular embrace the Roman Catholic religion. And between a special council for Christian religion known as the Council of Nicaea, the beliefs of the Nicaean Christian doctrine were approved, and this doctrine became the official religion of the Roman Empire through the Thessalonica Decree issued by Emperor Theodosius in 3 80 AD, and the issuance of this decree resulted in the non-recognition of the rest of the doctrines and other Christian denominations in the Roman Empire, and it is worth noting that Rome remained one of the important centers of the Catholic Christian religion for a long period of time extending to several centuries, and the urban areas in this city had great religious importance represented It is home to nearly 900 churches, as well as the location of the Vatican State, and home to what is known as St. Peter’s Basilica.
Currency and economy in Rome
The euro was adopted in 1999 AD to be the legal currency in Rome in particular and Italy in general, and with regard to the economy of Rome, it can be said that it was based on agriculture in the beginning, then it turned to industry in the period after the Second World War, and in the nineties of the last century, Rome relied on A financial and economic system that would make it part of the economic and monetary plans of the European Union. This system was based on a set of reform and austerity measures, such as dispensing with the inflation wage index system, and reducing the amount of financial spending for social welfare programs And other policies and other procedures.
The economy of Rome is divided into different proportions, as the services sector constitutes 48% of the city’s GDP, while the industry sector returns with revenues amounting to 35% of the gross domestic product, while the rest is distributed among a number of different fields and sectors, such as agriculture The general management of total gross income per capita is similar to the per capita income in France and the United Kingdom, and Rome is the seat of many international companies and organizations such as the World Food Organization (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development, despite the strength of the economy Rome, which became evident in the early part of the twenty-first century, but there are some worrisome economic files, such as high unemployment, government deficits, and other files.
The city of Rome includes many different and different industries that are distinguished by it, such as garment manufacturing, filmmaking and publishing, and is responsible for the issuance of many daily newspapers and magazines, in addition to many engineering, chemical, electronic, banking, even satellite industries, among others. Among other areas, there are many factors that contribute to the growth of the economy, including:
- Tourism occupies the largest sector on which the city is based, with millions of visitors heading to Rome as a tourist destination, whether from inside or outside Italy.
- The Church plays an important role in the growth and prosperity of Rome’s economy.
- Rome is the hub of three companies that are the largest of the 100 companies in the world, such as Telecom Italia, Enel and ENI.
- Rome is the seat of many international headquarters, government centers, museums, and conference centers.
It must be noted here that, despite this diversity in industries located in Rome, it is not considered an industrial city.
- Rome is one of the main shopping centers in both southern and central Italy, as it is a city characterized by the diversity of its markets and their differences, such as fashion markets whose windows are decorated with a special Italian character.
The local government in Rome
The system of government in Italy is a republic in which the president of the country is elected for a term of up to seven years through an electoral body, after which the prime minister is appointed by the president of the republic subject to the approval of the two chambers of Parliament, namely: the House of Representatives, which consists of 630 members, and the Senate, which reaches Its membership is 315, and the Parliament is elected by the people once every five years. It is worth noting that Italy consists of a group of 8101 municipalities, and it is called in Italian the name of the Comune, and Rome is the largest municipality among them, and the city is divided Rome to nineteen regions ed Rayya called each of them Monatshipi (municipi) is where the election of the President and four members of their mandate lasts for five years, and there are some areas known as the suburbs, and many of the agricultural areas of up to fifty-two agricultural area.
As the capital of Italy, Rome hosted many different international conferences such as the Rome Convention in 1957 AD, as it is the seat of many different governmental institutions, legislative and judicial councils, and various diplomatic and international bodies of the United Nations such as the World Food Program, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development, this. In addition, it includes many foreign embassies of Italy and the Holy See, with the ambassador usually adopting himself to represent each of them.
Culture in Rome
Roman civilization left great traces in art and architecture, as it had a presence in the development of Western culture, as it was influenced by what was presented by the ancient Greeks, and in various fields including inventions and urban construction, with an addition to some improvements, in addition to its interest in building large terraces as the Colosseum, as it is worth The indication that the Romans cared greatly in the art of sculpture, and this interest is evident through thousands of sculpted antiquities distributed throughout the museums of the world.
The Roman civilization, which was based on its beginnings on the culture derived from the Greeks and the Etruscans, was able to spread throughout the whole world, and despite the disappearance of some of these civilizational arts, whether material or moral, but part of it is still present until now, mentioning the Greek theater, where he incorporated this theater Between different forms of arts such as dance, singing, acting and others, this is evident in many different theatrical works such as those composed by Shakespeare.
Roman literature was influenced since ancient times by the Greeks in Greece, by copying many Greek literary works and translating many of them into Latin languages, as many Romanians received their education in Athens, and despite this close connection with Greek literature, the Roman civilization contributed to the development of literature Its comprehensive comprehensive address deals with many different aspects, such as poetry, philosophy, drama, and comedy. Romanian civilization witnessed many prominent writers during the establishment of the Roman Republic such as writer Cato, Cicero and Caesar.
There are many important monuments of great literary value in Rome, including the following:
- Home of the poet Keats Chilean: The house of the romantic poet Keats-Shelley – who died in 1821 – is considered one of the most prominent literary monuments in Rome. This house is located in the lower part of what is known as the Spanish Steps in the vicinity of the Church of Trinita de Monte, and this small house has now become a university museum for many literary works related to the romantic side, such as the works of writer Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, in addition to Many romantic texts inscribed on wood, glass, and walls.
- Protestant cemetery: It is another place that is considered an important literary milestone in Rome, where many painters and writers were buried, including Kitts Shelley and others Kabsiri, Carlo Emilio and Gregory Corso, and this place also includes the well-known tomb (The Angel of Grief) made by sculptor William Whitmore Story for his wife.
- Home writer Alberto Moravia: Alberto Moravia’s house is located above the Tiber, and this writer is one of the most famous writers in postwar Italy, and his house remained as it is preserving all its holdings, which made it a small museum in Rome.
- Antico Greco Café: One of the oldest cafes in Italy, Antico Caffè Greco was and still is a meeting place for artists, writers, and writers.
- Goethe House: The home of the classic painter Johann Wolfgang Goethe is one of Rome’s most famous literary monuments, and currently contains many works and drawings that Goethe drew with the use of watercolors.
Rome has a strong educational system that supports government schools, and an international bilingual system. Among the most important classifications of educational institutions in Rome are the following:
- public schools: It is compulsory for students and available free of charge, from the entry of the sixth year of the student until the end of the age of sixteen, and expatriates who live in Rome are allowed to include their children in these schools, to integrate them in both culture and society, and to master the Italian language.
- Private schools: Private schools are very similar to public schools, where they are funded by the government and adopt the same curricula, and are subject to the same standards and educational systems of government, but it is distinguished by its different philosophy, such as teaching students a specific religious philosophy such as Catholicism, or following a specific method of education such as the Montessori method.
- International schools: There are many international schools in Rome, each of which takes a curriculum, a special educational environment, and a different teaching language, and is frequented by many indigenous Roman children, as well as by expatriates who work in Rome, where their children can study educational curricula in the appropriate language for them.
There are many sports that can be played in Rome, especially football, as Rome owns the Olympic football stadium that hosts the Italian Cup final every year, and in 2020, Italy will host the country of Scotland in the third round of the Six Nations Championship on February 22, In the same year, it will host the European quarter-finals, and Italy owns the PalaLottomatica basketball court, which receives more than 11,000 fans. It is noteworthy that in the spring in Rome, the most important tennis players in the world are flocking, and the city is attracted to the same Sport lover period الغولف، حيثُ تنتشر فيها العديد من الأماكن الخاصة لممارسة هذه الرياضة، ويُمكن مشاهدة البطولات الوطنيّة في الغولف في شهر تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر، هذا فضلاً عن انتشار العديد من الأماكن المُجهّزة لممارسة الأنواع المختلفة لسباق الخيل، وسباق السيارات، والتّجديف.
تشتهر روما بأطباقها اللذيذة ذات الطّابع البسيط المُتوارث عبر السنوات، والتي تتّسم بتنوّعها الذي يمزج بين أشهر أطباق المعكرونة وأطباق الخضراوات، واللحوم، ويُذكر منها الآتي:
- السبلي: (بالإيطالية: Supplì)، إحدى الأطعمة الكلاسيكيّة التي تتكوّن من كرات الأرز المقلية، والمحشوة بمزيج يحتوي على صلصة الراغو مع جبن الموزاريلا.
- زهور اليقطين المقلي: (بالإيطالية: Fiori di Zucca)، يُعدّ من الأطباق اللذيذة ذات الشكل المميز، المكوّنة من أزهار اليقطين المحشوّة بجبن الموزاريلا مع الأنشوجة.
- باقلا: تعد الباقلا (بالإيطالية: Baccalà)، من الأطباق الرئيسية في روما، والذي تشتهر به أيضاً مناطق البحر الأبيض المتوسط، ويعد سمك القدّ المملّح المقلي المكوّن الرئيسيّ في هذا الطّبق.
- الخرشوف الروماني: (بالإيطالية: Carciofo alla Romana)، يعدّ هذا الطبق من المقبّلات التي يتمّ تقديمها في فصلي الربيع والخريف، ويتمّ إعداد هذا الطبق من خلال طهي الخرشوف المحشو بالأعشاب، والليمون على نار هادئة.
- بيتزا التاغيلو: (بالإيطالية: Pizza al Taglio)، يفضل الكثيرون هذا النوع من البيتزا، والتي تحتوي على التين، وجبن البارميزان والموزاريلا، وكريمة اليقطين، وغيرها من المكوّنات.
- البيتزا الرومانية: (بالإيطالية: Pizza Romana)، تتميّز هذه البيتزا بكونها رقيقةً، وهشّةً، ويُمكن تناولها بإضافة بعض المكوّنات عليها، مثل: الفطر، والزيتون، والبيض المسلوق.
- كاربونارا: (بالإيطالية: Carbonara)، يعدّ الكاربونارا من أنواع المعكرونة التي تتميز بصلصة خاصة، يتمّ تحضيرها بالاعتماد على البيض كمكوّن أساسيّ.
- البوكاتيني بصلصة الأماتريتشانا: (بالإيطالية: Bucatini all’Amatriciana)، تُشبه بحدٍ كبير معكرونة السباغتي، إلا أنّها أكثر سماكةً، وتعتمد بشكلٍ أساسيّ في طريقة طهوها على الطماطم، لتحضير صلصة خاصة تُعرَف بـ الأماتريتشانا.
- ترابيزينو: (بالإيطالية: Trapizzino)، تعدّ الترابيزينو من الساندويشات المشهورة المحشوة بالباذنجان، ومبروش جبنة البارميزان.
- ماريتوزو: (بالإيطالية: Maritozzo)، يعد هذا الطبق من الأطباق اللذيذة التي يمكن تناولها على الإفطار، حيثُ يتم تناول لفائف من نوع خاص من الخبز المحشوّ بالكريمة الغنية بالسعرات الحرارية.
- الريكوتا مع الكرز: (بالإيطالية: Torta Ricotta e Visciole)، وهي أحد أنواع الحلوى الإيطاليّة التي تحتوي على جبنة الريكوتا مع الكرز الحامض، ليكونا طبقاً يُشبه تشيز كيك التوت.
السياحة في روما
تُعد روما من المدن السياحيّة الشهيرة، وتُعتبر ثالث أكثر المدن استقطاباً للسياح في الاتّحاد الأوروبيّ بعد مدينتي باريس ولندن، وتستقطب ما يُقارب 10 ملايين سائح سنوياً، حيث تملك العديد من المعالم التاريخية والأثرية التي تصف وقائع حصلت سابقاً في أوروبا وإيطاليا، مما يجعلها وِجهةً سياحيةً جاذبةً تستقطب الزوار من جميع أرجاء العالم لزيارة أبرز معالمها الأخّاذة، ومن تلك المعالم ما يأتي:
- Colosseum: يُُعتبر مُدرج الكولوسيوم (colosseum) الرمز الفخريّ الخاصّ بمدينة روما، فضلاً عن كونه مكاناً لجذب آلاف السياح بشكلٍ سنويٍ، بُني هذا المدرج عام 80م، وقد كان مسرحاً للعديد من الممارسات مثل مصارعة الحيوانات.
- Pantheon: بنى الرومان هذا الصّرح في بادئ الأمر لآلهتهم، وبعد ذلك تمّ تحويله إلى كنيسةٍ، ويعد البانثيون أحدَ اكثر المعالم الرومانية التي بقي هيكلها محفوظاً حتى الوقت الحالي على الرغم من تاريخ بنائه الطويل الذي يعود إلى ما يُقارب الألفي عام، ويجدر بالذكر إلى أنّ هذا البناء يضمّ العديد من الأعمدة الموجودة بداخله، ويحتوي على فتحةٍ دائريةٍ في أعلاه تسمح لأشعة الشمس بالمرور من خلالها.
- Trevi Fountain: تُعدّ من أكثر النوافير شهرةً في العالم، ومن أكثر المعالم جذباً للسيّاح، ويعود ذلك إلى التّقاليد التي تتمّ على هذه النافورة، إذ يُقال إنّ رميَ السائح لعملةٍ معدنيّةٍ بأسلوبٍ معينٍ يجعله يعود مرّةً أخرى لزيارة روما.
- كنيسة سان لويجي دي فرانثيس: وهي كنيسة تم إنشاؤها من أجل الفرنسيين في روما، تضمّ أعمالاً فنيةً عظيمةً مُستمدّة من فنّ العمارة الباروكيّة، إذ تحتوي على ثلاثة أعمال للرّسام الباروكي كارافاجيو.
- ساحة نافونا: وهي ساحة تحتوي على عددٍ كبيرٍ من المقاهي والمطاعم، ممّا جعلها أحد أكثر الأماكن شعبية في روما، وتحتوي على نوافير تمّ تصميم أحدها من قبل الفنان جان لورينزو برنيني الذي يُعدّ أحد أشهر الفنانين عبر التاريخ.
- تلّة كابيتولين: هي إحدى التلال السبع لمدينة روما، وواحدة من أكثر المناطق جذباً للسياح في روما، ويشار إلى أنّها تحتوي على العديد من الأعمال الفنيّة المسيحيّة.
- المنتدى الروماني: يضم المنتدى الروماني الذي يقع وسط منطقة روما القديمة العديد من المعالم الأخرى فيه، كالمعابد والمباني الحكومية التي كانت قائمة في العصر الروماني، وقد خُصّص سابقاً لعقد العديد من الفعاليات الاجتماعيّة، والثقافيّة، والأدبيّة: كالاحتفالات، والجنائز، والخُطب، والأنشطة التجاريّة أيضاً.
تُعد الفاتيكان أكبر معلمٍ دينيٍ في العالم، يمتدّ تاريخها إلى ما يزيد عن الألف عام، وهي دولة ذات سيادةٍ مستقلّةٍ تقع حدودها وسط مدينة روما، وقد تم إنشاء هذه الدولة بموجب اتّفاقية لاتران التي تمّ إبرامها في الحادي عشر من شهر شباط لعام 1929م. تُحاط المدينة بأسوارٍ خارجيةٍ يتمّ الدخول إليها من خلال ما يُعرَف بأعمدة بيرنيني، وتحتوي الفاتيكان بداخلها على العديد من الأعمال الفنيّة والمعماريّة منها كاتدرائية القديس بُطرس التي أقيمت فوق ضريح القديس بطرس الرسول، وقصر الفاتيكان الذي تم إنشاؤه بعد سلسلةٍ طويلةٍ من التّعديلات والتّطويرات التي قام بها البابوات على مرّ العصور، فضلاً عن المكتبة التي تمّ تأسيسها في عام 1475م، لتكون أول مكتبةٍ عامةٍ في أوروبا، حيث تمتاز بامتلاكها العديد من المخطوطات، والرسومات، والنقوش، والكتب، والمطبوعات المختلفة، وتُعتبر المدينة المقدّسة المقرّ الدائم للبابوات في الديانة المسيحية، وأحد أهم المعالم الثقافيّة بالنسبة للمسيحين وغيرهم.