What is the capital of Italy

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Italy (English: Italy) Officially the Italian Republic (English: Italian Republic), which is a European country located in southern Europe, which is a peninsula that extends in the Mediterranean Sea, and to the northeast of Tunisia, and the establishment of the Italian Republic dates back to 1861 AD, after its union Under the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II, Italy is politically famous for its leader Mussolini, who led a fascist rule in it at the beginning of the twentieth century, and in 2016, the population of the Republic of Italy reached 62,007,540 people, and it ranked 24th in the world in terms of population, and its area is Total 301,340 km2 With the islands of Sicily and Sardinia.

Rome is the capital of Italy

The city of Rome (English: Rome) is the capital of Italy, the capital of the province of Rome, and the capital of the Lazio region, a historical city that has a long and long history, as one of the most ancient and powerful civilizations in history has built on its soil, and Rome was the capital of the ancient Republic of Rome and the ancient Rome Empire, and the city witnessed The pinnacle of artistic and intellectual achievement at that time, and Rome today is an important religious center; it is the spiritual and actual seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and is a political capital par excellence.

Geography of Rome

The city of Rome is located in the center of the Italian peninsula, in the region of Lazio, overlooking the banks of the Tiber River, about 24 km inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the area of ​​the city of Rome is 1,285 km 2, while the area of ​​the province of Rome is 5,352 km 2, while the city climate prevails in it The mild weather is closest to warm, and the average annual temperature is 15.7 ° C, while in the summer the weather is hot and warm at times, especially during July, where this month is the hottest month, and the average temperature is 24.4 ° C, while The winter in Rome is cold, and temperatures are lower It is in January, when the average temperature is 7.7 degrees Celsius, while the rainfall is seen above in November, and it is 114 mm.

The population of Rome

According to statistics from 2016, 2,869,461 people live in the city of Rome, and as such, it has a population density of 2,232 people / km2, while the province of Rome has a population of 3.8 million, and the population of the metropolitan area is 4.3 million, and in 2016, the city of Rome was the largest A city in Italy in terms of population, and the fourth largest city in the European Union in terms of population within the city limits.
Non-Italian immigrants represent 9.5% of the population of Rome, of whom 4.7% are of European descent, most notably the Romanians, Ukrainians, Poles, and Albanians, and 4.8% of them are immigrants from countries, most notably the Philippines, Bangladesh, China, and Peru, and there is a large neighborhood in Rome It is called “Esquilino Rion” that includes immigrants from more than 100 countries, as well as several hundred Roma Roma, who live illegally on the outskirts of the rural city, in the city of Rome, and it is estimated that there are 8,000 homeless people in the city homeless, and most of them are non-Italians.

History of Rome

Founding the city of Rome

The establishment of the city of Rome dates back to 713 BC at the hands of Romulus, but the city dates back to before that date, where Rome was one of the inhabited colonies in the Latium Plain, and the city began to develop because of its location on the salt trade line that was crossing the Tiber River, near the hills The seven upon which the city was built, and the first rulers of the city were the kings, and it is likely that they were Etruscan, who left the city in 500 BC.

The Republic and the Roman Empire

After the rule of kings, the Roman Republic rose and lasted for 5 centuries, and Roman domination expanded across the Mediterranean, and Rome played a pivotal role in this empire, and its rulers became emperors after Emperor Augustus, who died in 14 AD, and the empire continued to expand until Rome ruled large parts of Western Europe South America, North Africa, and large parts of the Middle East. Thus, Rome became a focal point for a rich and luxurious culture. The city witnessed a great urban expansion, and its population increased to reach about one million people, and they were dependent on imports of grains and water channels .
In the fourth century AD, Emperor Constantine ordered that changes be made that affected Rome. The first was the conversion of the city’s religion to Christianity, building works dedicated to the worship of the new god, changing the shape and function of the city, and laying the foundations for another life after the empire fell, and the second is building a new capital for the empire which is Constantinople in the east , As the Romans gave great control to the eastern half of the empire, and Constantinople became the center of emperors after Constantine, thus the city lost its political status, and began to retreat.

The fall of Rome and the emergence of the papacy

In the year 476 AD, the Western Roman Empire collapsed, shortly after Leo I began the Archbishop of Rome after confirming his role as heir to Saint Peter, but the rule of Rome transferred between several warring powers such as the Lombards and the Byzantines, as the Byzantines tried to control Rome to re-establish the Roman Empire in it, Rome continued to change, and its population reached 30,000, and the Senate, which was the political representative of the people, ended in 580 CE.
In the Middle Ages, the papacy began to emerge, Christianity was reconfigured in the West around the papacy in Rome by Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th century AD, and the papal rule began to appear throughout Europe, thus the papal power and the power of Rome grew as its center, and Rome flourished because of the pilgrims It became the center of a group of real estate, cities, and lands known as the Papal States, and the popes, cardinals, and other wealthy church officials funded the rebuilding of the city.

The fall of the papacy and the Renaissance

In 1305 AD, the papacy was forced to move to the Avignon region, the papacy was absent from Rome, and its absence was followed by the occurrence of a major schism among the churches, and the city fell because of the many factions in it, but the papal control over Rome was restored in 1420 AD, and this was accompanied by a large and conscious reconstruction program of He pushed Rome to be at the forefront of the cities that witnessed the Renaissance, and the popes were aiming to create a city that reflects their strength, and can deal with the pilgrims, and the papal era was not always prosperous and political stability, where Pope Clement VII stood with the French army in the face of Holy Roman Emperor Carlos the Fifthly, this led to the fall of the city again, but was rebuilt again.

Rome in the modern era

In the late 17th century AD, an end to the papal transgressions in the city’s rule began, and in the same period the cultural focus of the continent of Europe moved from Italy to France, and the number of pilgrims to Rome began to decline, in contrast the numbers of tourists arriving in the city began to increase, in order to see the historical places in Rome instead of religious purposes, and in the late eighteenth century Napoleon’s armies arrived in Rome and plundered many works of art, and in 1808 AD Napoleon’s army completely took over the city and imprisoned the Pope, but this was not short-lived, and the return of the Pope to the city was welcomed in 1814AD.

Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic

In the year 1848 AD, Rome witnessed a revolution, and the Pope refused to agree to the revolutions that took place and he was forced to flee from divided citizens, and a new Roman Empire was declared, but the French armies destroyed it in the same year, but the revolution did not actually end, and the movements calling for unification succeeded The Italian Republic, which controlled most of the papal state, and in 1871 AD the French forces left the city, and the capital of the new Italian Republic was declared.
After declaring the capital of Italy, buildings in Rome began to flourish, and its population increased from about 200,000 in 1871 AD to 660,000 in 1921 AD, and Rome became a major center of conflict in 1922 when Benito Mussolini directed his army towards the city and took control of the republic, and in 1929 CE he signed Mussolini’s Lateran Agreement, which granted the Vatican their independent state inside Rome, and during the Second World War the Mussolini regime collapsed, and Rome escaped this great struggle without little significant damage.

Landmarks of Rome

The city of Rome contains many important historical and religious monuments and evidence, most notably:

  • Vatican: The Vatican is the smallest country in the world, and it is a city of great religious importance. It is the place that witnessed the martyrdom of St. Peter and the location of his shrine, the place of the papacy sitting, and the Vatican is located in Rome, where Rome is surrounded on all sides, it is its only outlet, and is considered a religious destination For millions around the world who are followers of the Christian faith.
  • St. Peter’s Basilica: This cathedral is the most important landmark of the Christian religion in the world and the largest church in the world, and this church can unite the followers of the Christian religion in one place, and it is dedicated to St. Peter, the first messenger, the first pope, and the head of the church. The church was built in 1626 AD, and it combines ancient art and importance Religious, and today receives millions of pilgrims annually.
  • Colosseum: It is a very large amphitheater, dating back to the Roman era, built by Emperor Vespasian, and opened by his son Titus in the year 80 AD, and is considered the largest Roman building in Rome, and was used to attend fighting, matches and wrestling between animals and people, all of which were held for the purpose of entertainment.
  • Pantheon: It is a large Roman monument, and has the largest brick dome in the history of architecture, and is considered a precursor to all modern places of worship, and is originally a small temple dedicated to the worship of ancient Roman deities, was built between the years 27 AD and 25 AD by Commander Agrippa, and the current building came as a result of restoration and maintenance Huge, and according to the historical account, the Pantheon is located at the place where Romulus, the founder of Rome, died, and after his death the hawks raised him to the sky of the gods.
  • Trevi Fountain: It is the most famous fountain in Rome and Italy, and it is located between the historical palaces of Rome. The fountain embodies Baroque art that combines statues of imaginary creatures and soft lines that suggest the existence of a movement, designed by the architect Nicolas Salvi, and the construction was completed after 20 years.


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