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The capital of Kurdistan
Erbil is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, and the seat of government in the Kurdistan Regional Government, which is the center of Kurdish culture and politics in Iraqi Kurdistan, as it is one of the safest cities in it, and it is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world; it dates back to 6000 years ago. It was inhabited by the Greeks, the Mongols, the Persians, the Ottoman Turks, and the Romens over thousands of years, and the population of Erbil ranges from one and a half to two million citizens, of whom the Kurds constitute 93%.
Erbil is located in the north of the State of Iraq, 77 kilometers east of Mosul, bordered to the north by Turkey and to the east by Iran, and with an area of about 13 thousand square kilometers, and its climate varies between the Mediterranean and the desert.
History of Erbil
Erbil was a center of movement in the Assyrian Empire, and until a long time, Erbil remained a crossroads for caravan paths, and the city embraced Christianity at an early date, and in the year 340 AD Christians were persecuted in it, and despite the Islamic conquest in the seventh century the city maintained its position as an active center of Christianity and the episcopate From 1190 CE until 1232 CE, Erbil became the capital of Muzaffar al-Din, the brother-in-law of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi. He built many buildings that still stand on its mountainous slopes, and in the thirteenth century, Erbil lost its importance in Mosul but maintained its position in the region.
Erbil Castle was built in the nineteenth century on top of an oval hill, and the castle is characterized by a strange pattern that resembles a fan and dates back to the late Ottoman rule of Erbil, and historical written records document the effects of settlement in Erbil that was called Arbela, and archaeological research indicates that the hill on which it is located The castle hides old settlements there.