What is the capital of Lebanon

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The State of Lebanon

The State of Lebanon is one of the small independent states, located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the continent of Asia, bordered to the north and east by Syria, and from the south by Palestine, while the western borders extend to the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and its climate is semi-tropical; where the summer is hot Dry and mild to cold winter.
The State of Lebanon is one of the most populous countries in the world, as it ranks 108 globally in terms of population. Its population is estimated in 2020 to be about 6.86 million people. The Lebanese community includes many ethnic and religious groups, and the Arabic language is the official language in The country.

Beirut, the capital of Lebanon

The city of Beirut is located in western Lebanon, and the borders of the city that forms a peninsula extends on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea below the mountains of Lebanon over the Ashrafieh hill known as Eastern Beirut, and the Musayyabah hill known as Western Beirut, as it is considered the main port of the country. Beirut has become the official capital of the country since the declaration of Lebanon’s independence in 1943 AD after the First World War, and the origin is due to the designation of the city of Beirut for the Canaanite Phoenician word (Be’erot) which means the source of groundwater, while some believe that the origin of the name is due to (Beroe) daughter Greek gods Aphrodite and Adonis, as they were called (Laodicea) in the Phoenician civilization.

History and development of Beirut

The city of Beirut is considered the oldest Lebanese city, as it has been inhabited for five thousand years, and the Amarna letters are considered the first historical reference for the city and it was mentioned in it, in addition to the messages of Amonera, the king of Peret – Beirut currently – which he sent to Pharaoh, and it is possible to enumerate the ages that passed on The city of Beirut is in chronological order, which is as follows:

  • 10,000-600,000 BC: The ancient and medieval stone age.
  • 10,000 – 4,500 BC: The Neolithic period.
  • 3500-4500 BC: Copper Stone Age.
  • The year 3500 BC: The beginning of the Canaanite civilization.
  • 14th century BC: Mention Beirut in the messages of Tel el-Amarna.
  • In 1200 BC: The beginning of the Phoenician civilization.
  • In 332 BC: Alexander the Great came to Beirut.
  • 140 BC: The city was burned during the Seleucid War, and it remained like this for a century.
  • The year 64 BC: Roman invasion of the Middle East, including Beirut.
  • Year 312 AD: The transfer of rule from the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire.
  • Year 551 AD: The city was hit by an earthquake, which led to its complete destruction, followed by strong waves.
  • Year 560 AD: The great fire of the city after the earthquake.
  • Year 635 AD: The Islamic conquests reached the city, and the Byzantine rule ended.
  • The year 1110 AD: Crusade invasion of the city.
  • The year 1187 AD: Beirut was opened after the battle of Hattin, led by Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.
  • The year 1197 AD: The Crusader invasion of Beirut once again.
  • The year 1291 AD: The siege of the city’s Mamluk armies.
  • 1516-1919 AD: The period of Ottoman rule.
  • In the year 1920 AD: Declaration of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, during the French mandate.
  • The year 1943: Lebanon’s Declaration of Independence.

The area of ​​Beirut

The city of Beirut covers an area of ​​about 18 km2, while the area of ​​the urban area is about 67 km2. The city takes the form of a triangle located on the Ashrafieh and Musaytaba hills. The city’s coast consists of rocky and sandy beaches. The city also includes twelve neighborhoods, namely: the Ashrafieh neighborhood, the Ramil, And Dar Al-Mraiseh, Al-Marfa, Al-Mazra’a, Al-Mudawar, Mina Al-Hosn, Ras Beirut, Zakat Al-Balat, Al-Saifi, Al-Msaitiba, and Bachoura.

Beirut climate

The climate of Beirut is described as moderate to cold, as the winter is characterized by moderate cold. The month of January and February is the coldest month in the winter, with the lowest temperature reaching six degrees Celsius, and the rainy season begins from the middle of the autumn to the beginning of the spring. The average annual rainfall in the winter is about 860 mm annually, and rarely it rains in the city, while the summer temperatures reach their highest levels in the month of August, where it records about 29 degrees Celsius.

Beirut residents

Beirut is the largest Lebanese city in terms of population, with estimates indicating that the city has a population of about 361,000, while the urban area of ​​Beirut – that is, the city with its suburbs and the surrounding cities and villages – comprises about 2.2 million people, and Beirut is considered the most eastern city. The center is religiously diverse, as it includes several religions, such as Islamism, Christianity, and others.
The total number of recognized sects in the city of Beirut is eighteen sects, comprising the Islamic religion in its various sects, such as Sunni, Shi’a, Druze, and Alevi, in addition to twelve Christian sects, such as Orthodox, Greek Catholics, Assyrian, Syriac, and other sects.

Tourism in Beirut

The city of Beirut is distinguished by its attractive architecture that mixes Gothic, Venetian, and French architecture, as well as Ottoman architecture and Arabesque patterns. The city also includes many famous historical buildings, such as Roman ruins, in addition to the Beirut Corniche, which is one of the famous tourist destinations in the city, and also includes a region Gemmayze artwork bohemian buildings, in addition to French historical buildings.

Tourist attractions

Beirut is famous for many tourist attractions that can be visited, including the following:

  • Martyrs’ Square: Established in Lebanon in 1931 AD, it includes a memorial designed to honor former martyrs.
  • Star Square: It includes the Parliament, two cathedrals, and a museum.
  • Hamra Street: This street is a place for intellectual activities, and it includes many universities and bookstores.
  • Raouche Rock: The Raouche Rock overlooks the Beirut Corniche, and these rocks are a natural landmark in Lebanon.
  • Saint Nicholas Park: The park is one of the popular places that connect Sarsuk Street and Gouraud Street in the Gemmayze area of ​​Beirut.
  • Muhammad Al-Amin Mosque: The late Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri has ordered the construction of this mosque, and it is one of the distinctive landmarks in the city.
  • Beiteddine Palace: This palace was built in 1788 AD, and it took thirty years to build it, including a museum, and an annual music festival.


Beirut is considered one of the cities rich in culture and history, due to the many civilizations that passed through it and which had a clear impact on it, such as the Phoenician, Roman, and Ottoman civilizations. Therefore, the city’s museums were numerous.

  • National Museum of Beirut: This museum was established in 1930 AD, it was restored in 1995 AD, and it was opened in 1999 AD.
  • Sursock Palace: The palace is attributed to Nicola Sursock, where it was opened in 1961, and the museum houses contemporary artworks.
  • M Museum: Located at Saint Joseph University, this museum contains more than 300 kinds of the best minerals in the world.
  • Robert Moawad Private Museum: This museum is distinguished by its European exterior and its Arabic-style interiors.
  • Silk Museum of Sousse: The museum was established in 1945 and includes the entire stages of silk production and production.
  • The American University Museum: This museum was established in 1868 AD, and it is considered one of the oldest Arab museums; it contains archeological collections dating back to the Neolithic period.

The most important universities in Beirut

Beirut includes many universities, where students come from all over the world, and among the best universities in Beirut are the following:

  • American University of Beirut: The American University of Beirut was founded in 1866 AD and is considered one of the 300 best universities in the world, according to the QS World University Rankings 2016.
  • Lebanese American University: The Lebanese American University was founded in 1835 AD, and it ranked 651-700 globally, and the fifteenth of the Arabs, a private university whose branches are located in the cities of Beirut and Jubail.
  • Saint Joseph University: St. Joseph University was founded in 1875 AD, and it is considered a private university, and it has two branches in Beirut and Dubai.

The most famous food in Beirut

The different types of foods in Beirut were affected by the successive civilizations, as the refugees who flocked to them left many of the traditions of their countries, and they affected the ways of cooking different foods, which are similar to other countries such as Palestine, Syria, Morocco, and Turkey, and the Ottoman state had the effect The largest in different ways of cooking different foods, and Manaqish are among the most popular recipes for Beirut food, along with fatta chickpeas, eggs with gawarma, hookahs, kebabs, and kebbe, in addition to kunafa and herniated.

Fashion in Beirut

Through its markets, Beirut provides an opportunity to get acquainted with its local culture, as the city includes many markets such as the good market, the popular Sunday market, Bourj Hammoud, Beirut markets and others, as it is famous for its popular markets full of life despite the absence of a large local market. It is worth noting that the city of Beirut is called Paris of the East, due to its distinguished international position, as it is considered a center of creativity and innovation in various fields, especially fashion and design, and the Higher School of Arts and Technology in Beirut (Esmod) is the first school specialized in fashion in the capital.


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