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Madagascar is an island country and was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. It is located in the Indian Ocean in the southeast of Africa, and Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world. In Madagascar there are more than 5% of the species of plants and animals in the world, and 80% of the species are found in a settlement in Madagascar including lemurs, monkey fossa, carnivores, and there are also three families of birds and six types of gates, the island of Madagascar is one of the very poor countries where the population of Madagascar lives below the international poverty line, i.e. less than $ 1.25 a day, there are many ethnicities in Madagascar That contributed throughout history to the diversity of play Madagascar’s individual status, and each race was committed to its own beliefs and practices, and 50% of the island’s population practiced traditional religious rituals, which confirmed the existence of links between the living and the dead, and there is a prevailing belief among Madagascar residents that the dead participate in the ancestors in divinity, and that the ancestors of the dead care about the fate of the Their living sons, while the language in Madagascar is Malayo, which is Polynesian in origin and is spoken by all the inhabitants of the island. The educated population speaks French and English and the government began in 2003 a project to teach English in primary schools. The government hopes to continue this trend .

History of Madagascar

The lands of Madagascar separated from the continent of Africa 160 million years ago, and separated from the Indian subcontinent 80-100 million years ago and the island was established, and most archaeologists estimated that man set foot on the land of Madagascar in the year 200 and 500 AD, and came to Madagascar sailors from Southeast Asia through sailing boats Ethnic evidence suggests that the sailors may have been preceded by the fishermen of Mecha who established a kingdom in southern Madagascar and who are of Somali origin.

The history of Madagascar began to be written since the seventh century, when Muslims established commercial centers on all areas overlooking the sea during the Middle Ages, and the kings began to work to expand their authority through trade with those around the island of Madagascar, and trade helped to create a system of the state based on its rule by regional kings who knew In the name of Marouserana, these kings relied on cultural traditions in their lands and worked to expand their powers and kingdoms, and skilled craftsmen working in various industries were established, until Madagascar became a port of communication with other Swahili cities such as Zanzibar, Mombasa, Kailua, and European contact began. On the island of Madagascar in 1500, when the Portuguese naval captain Dias Diogo saw the island after his ship was separated from a naval fleet he was going to India, and the Portuguese worked in trade with Madagascar and called it San Lawrenco, and in the year 1666 AD François Croon, the general manager of the French East India Company, sailed to Madagascar, but the company was not able to establish a colony on the island but was able to establish some ports, and the French company in the late seventeenth century established the commercial offices that occupied the eastern coast along its length.

France invaded Madagascar in 1883 AD with a war called Franco-Hova, and this war sought to restore property that had been confiscated from French citizens. In the end, Madagascar ceded France to Ancirirana, which is located on the northern coast and paid 560,000 francs to the heirs of Joseph François in 1890 In 1895, the second Franco-Hova War broke out, in which twenty French soldiers were killed in the battles and 6,000 died due to the malaria epidemic and many diseases that killed them. Hostilities ended in 1896 and France annexed Madagascar, and the royal family was sent into exile in Algeria after 103 years of The ruling thus ended h How much is the royal mirena.

In World War II, the Malagasy forces went to war with France, Morocco, and Syria, and some German leaders suggested that all the Jews in Europe be deported to Madagascar, but this did not happen, and Germany defeated France and the Vichy government took over in Madagascar, and the British forces occupied the island in 1942 AD To prevent the Japanese from capturing it, and then France took over, but with the loss of France’s prestige, the Malagasy uprising erupted in 1947 AD, and France shortly after that established reform institutions in 1956 AD. Madagascar moved towards independence peacefully and the Republic of Madagascar was proclaimed on October 14, 1958 AD. It will diminish within French society, and it was complete independence on June 26, 1960 AD.

Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar

Antananarivo, which is the capital of Madagascar, and is considered the largest city in it and known as Tana for short. The capital is located in the center of the island and is 145 km from the east coast and it is the administrative and economic center of Madagascar. The city is located on the top and slopes of a rocky hill that extends for a distance of 4 km south and north, and the height of the city above the sea 1275 meters and 125 km away from Tomasina, which is the main port of Madagascar, and where Evato International Airport is located; the capital Antananarivo was established in the seventeenth century and was the center of the Hova tribe, then it became the capital of the Kingdom of Myrina, which ruled the island for nearly two centuries, and the French took Antanana Revo is an administrative center for their colony, and a major transportation hub because of its vital location.

The economy of Madagascar

The economy of Madagascar depends mainly on agriculture and fishing, and most exports of coffee and vanilla. Madagascar is the largest country in the year producing and exporting vanilla, along with sugar cane, cocoa, rice, bananas, peanuts and some animal products. In the late eighties, structural reform began under the pressure of financial institutions And the World Bank, and despite structural reforms, the economy of Madagascar is still weak due to the corruption that controls that country, and in the period of strong growth experienced in Madagascar in 1997-2001 the levels of poverty remained high and the situation did not improve at all, especially in rural areas In 2001, a major political crisis that lasted for six months erupted due to the disagreement over the results of the presidential elections, and the crisis caused economic activity to stop in many places of the country until the gross domestic product decreased by 12.7%, and as a result, foreign investment flows decreased significantly because the crisis It worked to distort Madagascar in the eyes of foreign investors and importers, but after the crisis ended the Madagascar economy returned to recovery and GDP grew by 10% in 2003, but the devaluation of the currency and the high rate of inflation led to a low level of economic performance again in 2004, And hit Economic growth of only 5.3%, but inflation is under control in 2005 about the way monetary policy is working to raise the output tax to 16% and was expected to increase growth and reached 6.5% in the same year.

Entertainment in Madagascar

Many fun games have emerged on the island, such as Moraingy, a popular sport spread in the coastal areas of Madagascar and practiced by men, and there is also wrestling, which is on a type of cattle called (Seboh) in a number of areas, and entered some fun games such as football and rugby, which is a game Especially popular, and he was the world champion in bowling, a French game from Madagascar, and this game is played in urban areas, and Madagascar sent a player to the Olympic Games in 1964 AD and Madagascar participated in the African Games.

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