Mauritania is an Arab country that is located in the north of the continent of Africa and is officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, overlooking the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, where it is bordered to the south by Senegal, to the east by the Azawad region, to the north by the Western Sahara and Algeria, and to the south by Mali, and Mauritania for thousands of years has been considered a point of contact between the Arab world And the African and where the desert brings together different cultures and customs, including Africa, including Berber and Arab, and the designation of Mauritania dates back to the Roman era, where the name of Mauritania was called on the regions of North Africa and there were two countries called Caesarea Mauritania and Tangier Mauritania In the era of the French colonial project he chose the campaign commander Xavier Kaboulana Mauritania launched the name of the country, located between Senegal and Morocco, Mauritania and the word means the land of men brown.
Nouakchott is the capital of Mauritania and the largest city in it. It is the largest city in the Sahara and it is the administrative and economic center. On March 5, 1958, the foundation stone of the chosen capital, Ould Daddah, was the first president of Mauritania and French President Charles de Gaulle. This made a big difference. After that Nouakchott was a village Small, with a population of no more than 300, and lacking the simplest things from drinking water and a lack of rain, it quickly turned into the most important cities in the Republic of Mauritania, three years before independence and became the capital of the emerging country.
History of Nouakchott
The first human habitation in Nouakchott dates back to the Stone Age, where black tribes from east and south Africa settled, and barbarian tribes coming from North Africa migrated to the region in the first millennium BC and dominated the black population, and they brought camels and horses with them that facilitated The process of commercial exchange, and in the first millennium AD, Berber Sehnagha controlled the area that overlooks the ocean and desert trade routes.
Arab tribes invaded Nouakchott at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and the tribes settled in the sixteenth century, including the Bani Hassan tribe, whose origins date back to Egypt, but it faced strong opposition from the barbarian tribes but was later controlled, and in the eleventh century Mauritania entered Islam, and it was a state Ghana, whose capital was Kumbi Saleh, was the first Islamic state in that part of the earth in the fourth century AH, which is located in eastern Mauritania, and Muslims had a strong connection with it, and Nouakchott was a very important point in spreading Islam, where the return of Yahya and Abdullah bin Yasin established a camp at all. It has the name (Rabat) and it has become AD An important focus of spreading religion in the north and south.
As for the recent history of Nouakchott, it confirms that the city’s population reached 15,000 people in 5 years, after the construction of the capital, and it became a center for departments and services. The drought that struck Mauritania in the seventies led hundreds of families to go to the capital, and this led to a rapid doubling of population numbers. In 1976, the Polisario Front attacked the city as part of the independence movement for Western Sahara, which led to an increase in ethnic tensions between Arabs and blacks, and the country witnessed rapid growth, especially after the drought that struck North Africa, which intensified in 1980, so many residents were forced to migrate to Nouakchott, the capital, to search for A life Astray, where the population was not more than one million in 2000, and reached to 2 million in 2008.
Culture in Nouakchott
The capital Nouakchott includes a very important cultural movement in spite of the economic difficulties it faces and the lack of infrastructure, but it has many plastic exhibitions, sculptural and photographic exhibitions, fine arts, performing arts and concerts that take place throughout the year, and most activities are carried out on the role of youth, foreign cultural centers and sports fields And the city of Nouakchott hosts film festivals that display films produced locally or regionally, most notably (Nouakchott Film Festival) which is organized every year by the (Mauritanian Film House) Foundation, and the tide NH to host poetry festivals Mrs. Mubarak (Mauritania Festival of poetry), which is held annually. Some have felt in the Arab and other paschal be poetry in local dialects.
Education in Nouakchott
The only university in Mauritania is located in the capital, Nouakchott, and it is called (University of Nouakchott). This university was established in 1981 and the number of its students is approximately 8,000 students. The university has four colleges, the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, the Faculty of Science and Technology, the Faculty of Medicine, the College of Legal and Economic Sciences, The university has a great influence on the city, as it played an important role in education, and the city includes other higher education facilities such as the National School of Administration, the National Institute for Advanced Islamic Studies, and there are many primary and secondary schools, most notably the American International School, and secondly Theodore of French Mono.
The economy of Nouakchott
There are many companies in Nouakchott that produce food products, pesticides, cement, embroidery, and carpets, as well as handicraft products. The export of copper is important to the city and it is exported through the city’s port. In the year 2000, the capital Nouakchott had more than 30 medium-sized factories, and the city contains On important administrative and financial companies, before the Mauritanian airlines were closed, the Mauritanian Airlines company was based in the capital, Nouakchott.
Population in Nouakchott
The ethnicities that inhabit the capital Nouakchott are numerous and varied, so you find Arabs among them, including Africans, as well as Europeans who migrated and settled in the city through different periods of time, and there are many tourists and workers of foreign companies that invest in Mauritania and the majority of them are from Spain and France, while the Arabs in Nouakchott They are the majority and they are the indigenous population. In the sixties and seventies, Arab families from the east of the Arab world migrated to Nouakchott from Lebanese and Palestinians, and there are many Arab communities where you find Egyptians, Tunisians, Syrians, Algerians and Moroccans, and there are communities Most of them are from West Africa, such as Nigeria, Mali, Ghana, Senegal and many other countries.
Tourism in Nouakchott
Nouakchott beach is one of the most beautiful beaches overlooking the Atlantic Ocean, because Nouakchott is characterized by its mild climate that leads to an increase in the number of arrivals to the beach, especially in the summer when temperatures rise, and tourists in Nouakchott are attracted to many markets such as the silver market, and also facilities such as the National Museum In addition to the seashore, in which the fishing boats are used to allocate many types of fresh fish, the capital has a national library and a national archive that attracts many tourists and students studying at its university, and Nouakchott is the main center that starts with E exploration trips comprising experts interested in astronomy, where Mauritania is the main place for the distribution of the world of meteorites.
Nouakchott contains many mosques, the most important of which is the Nouakchott Mosque, which is considered one of the largest mosques in it, which was built by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and although the religion of the Mauritanian state is Islam, Nouakchott has the Saint Joseph Cathedral, which is a Catholic cathedral that was founded in 1965 and is home to the diocese Roman Catholics in Nouakchott.