Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an Arab country located in the continent of Asia, specifically in its southwestern region, and shared by the borders from the west by the Red Sea, while from the eastern side it shares borders with the State of Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Persian Gulf, and is bordered to the north by Jordan Iraq and Kuwait, and it shares borders with it from the southern side of the Sultanate of Oman and Yemen, and the total area of ​​Saudi Arabia is estimated at 2,250,000 km2.
The system of government in Saudi Arabia is considered a monarchy among the sons of King Abdulaziz Al Saud, and a group of governing councils is also dependent on the state, the most important of which is the Shura Council. And science. The Council of Ministers is also considered one of the important councils in Saudi Arabia, which works to manage public policies and coordinate cooperation between all government sectors, which contributes to monitoring and monitoring the implementation of decisions and regulations.

Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia

Riyadh is the official capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the largest city in it, and it is considered one of the major Arab cities in terms of geographical area. It is located in the central region near the eastern region on a plateau in the eastern part of the plateau of Najd in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, and its height above the sea level reaches 600 meters, and Riyadh is 1245 km from Jizan from the northeastern side, and Dammam is about 389 km, and away from Makkah Al Mukarramah, a distance of 880 km from the eastern side, the following information about the city of Riyadh:

History of Riyadh

Riyadh is considered one of the cities that witnessed many historical events in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as it is considered the capital of the second state in Saudi Arabia in 1824 AD, as King Abdulaziz worked on developing it in 1902 AD, which contributed to building civilization in it, and in the past Riyadh was known as The city of Hajar, and later changed its name to Green Hajar, due to the spread of green gardens and gardens on its land, which led to the change of its name to Riyadh in the eighteenth century AD.
Historicity indicates that the area on which the city of Riyadh was located was in the past the capital of Yamama province, which includes many areas, such as Sudair, Al-Kharj, Al-Hariq, etc., and the city was located between Wadi Al-Bathaa, formerly known as Al-Watar, and Wadi Hanifa, and its name was in the past the show.

Population in Riyadh

According to statistics from 2016, the population of the city of Riyadh is approximately 8 million. In the time period between 1930 and the beginning of the twenty-first century AD, the population of Riyadh increased, as a result of the high birth rate, the increase in the number of immigrants from foreign workers, and the movement of many Saudis from their areas of residence to the city of Riyadh. Society in the city is divided into various population groups, the most important of which are Saudi citizens, who make up nearly two thirds of the population, as well as immigrants from India and Pakistan. Islam is considered the official religion, which is widespread among almost all residents.

Economy in Riyadh

Riyadh contains many economic establishments belonging to both the public and private sectors, and its workforce is equivalent to half of the local production of services and goods in the city, and approximately one-fifth of workers work in the services sector, and labor is also spread in both the industrial and trade sectors.

There are many commercial and financial areas in Riyadh and industrial centers, and a group of major banks, specifically the Saudi Central Bank, as well as many factories specialized in various fields, such as machinery production, food industry, chemicals, textiles, and others.

Geography of Riyadh

The special geographical features in the city of Riyadh are varied, and its lands cover a group of granite and sedimentary rocks. The following are the most important geographical features spread on its surface:

  • Valleys: It is an important geographical topography, the most famous of which is the Hanifa Valley, which extends from the northwestern side to the southeastern side of the city of Riyadh, and its depth ranges between 10 meters to approximately 100 meters, and Wadi Al-Batha, which has a length of approximately 25 km, and starts from the northern side of the region Al-Majinah, to the south of Wadi Hanifa.
  • Hit edge: It is a group of heights that extend from the southeastern side to the eastern and northeastern side of the city of Riyadh, and its height reaches about 700 meters.
  • Ferrule rim: It is a group of chains extending from the middle of the Najd plateau from the southwestern side to the northeastern side to the northwestern side, and its length reaches 1100 km.
  • We run Al-Maizilah: It is a sand dune located in the northern side of Riyadh, and it is connected with the sand of Benban.
  • the soil: It is one of the geographical components in Riyadh, and it is one of the most famous types:
    • Valleys sediment soil: it is a soil consisting of alluvial sands connected to each other in varying degrees, and which depend on the presence of a carbonic substance that binds its components.
    • Sedimentary soil: it is a soil characterized by a change in its density due to the rise in the water level in its layers, which leads to a breakdown in its components, thus causing harmful salts resulting from evaporation.

Climate in Riyadh

The dry and contrasting climate affects the temperature in the city of Riyadh, which leads to erratic rainfall and a significant change in its rate, most of which falls during the time period between November and May, and this period constitutes both the spring and winter seasons. As for the general temperature in Riyadh, it witnesses an increase in its temperatures in the summer, and is accompanied by a decrease in the winter, and the estimated maximum temperatures in the summer to 42 degrees Celsius, and decreases in the winter to 11 degrees Celsius.

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