South Africa (English: South Africa) is an African country located on the southern side of the continent of Africa, bordered on the east by the Indian Ocean, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The system of government in South Africa is a parliamentary republic, and members of Parliament choose the president of the republic, who also occupies the position of head of government, and is responsible for formulating and implementing public policies within his duties towards the state. The general political system in South Africa depends on the participation of a group of parties in the National Assembly One of the parliament’s councils, and the judicial authority associated with the Constitutional Court is a fully independent body, working to implement all laws within the borders of the state.
South African capitals
South Africa depends on the existence of three official capitals that manage its affairs: Cape Town (English: Cape Town), the legislative capital, Pretoria (English: Administrative Capital), and Bloemfontein (English: Judicial Capital), which is a group of Information about each of these capitals:
Cape Town is one of the main cities in South Africa, and it is the legislative capital of the state, located in the northern side of the Cape Peninsula, up to the northern part of Cape of Good Hope, and this site was the first place where a European settlement is located in the state, and the name of Cape Town is It is also known as the term “mother city”, and its geographical area reaches 300 square kilometers, or approximately 116 square miles.
In the year 1652 AD, Cape Town was part of the possession of the East-Dutch India Company, and it was considered a private station in ships on the coasts of the Gulf Gulf, and in 1781 AD French forces helped the Dutch forces defend Cape Town against the British attack, and in the nineteenth century AD Britain worked on Changing many civilizational landmarks and general concepts in the city. At the present time Cape Town is considered a modern city, and it contains many buildings such as offices, shopping centers, and is also the main economic and political center in the country. Cape Town is distinguished by its diverse population, which belongs to different ethnic groups, such as the Malay (residents of Malaysia), immigrants from Europe and Africa.
The city of Pretoria
Pretoria is the administrative capital of South Africa. It was founded in 1855 AD by Martinus Pretorius, and from here it got its name, and in 1910 AD it became the administrative capital of the South African state, and it turned into a city in 1931 AD. Pretoria is famous for its tree-lined roads, and after World War II it witnessed prosperity in many civilizational landmarks, such as building skyscrapers around the private square in the city church. The city of Pretoria contains many beautiful parks and nature reserves, as well as the University of Pretoria and a group of technical and private colleges in teacher training, and also contains the headquarters of the government of the state, and centers of economic and engineering activities, and there is a railway. The geographical area of Pretoria is approximately 1644 km².
The city of Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein is the judicial capital of South Africa, as it is considered the capital of the Free State Province, and was established in 1846 AD, and then it became the seat of the British administration in the time period between 1848 – 1854 AD, and in the twentieth century AD it turned into a geographical center for transportation in South Africa, and contributed to the provision of Support for local economic development after the year 1948 AD, through relying on the gold found in its lands, and the city of Bloemfontein is located on a plateau that reaches a height of 1392 meters, and there is a fountain of flowers that is considered one of the most beautiful natural springs, and also the city contains the court of appeal Of, and there is the University of the Free State, which dates back to its founding in 1904. The estimated population of the city of Bloemfontein is 650,000.
The geographical topography of South Africa is diverse between mountains, valleys and hills, and the Drakensberg Mountains, known as the Dragon Mountains, are the highest mountains in the country, with a height of more than 3,408 meters. Also, in South Africa there is the Kalahari Desert, and it is considered part of the huge sand that extends to Namibia on the western side, and Zimbabwe in the east. The Orange River is one of the most famous water bodies, as it is classified as the main river in the state of South Africa.
The lands of South Africa are located in the southern temperate zone, which contributed to the climate being moderate, and the temperature varies between the regions of South Africa, as temperatures in the east coast range between 11 degrees Celsius in July and 21 degrees Celsius in February ( February), and on the West Coast it ranges between 7-12 ° C, and temperatures are cooler in the higher areas of Johannesburg, ranging between 4 ° C in both June and July, and 14 ° C in January.
The rainfall rate in South Africa cannot be determined, due to the presence of droughts on long periods, which leads to serious effects in the agricultural sector, the average precipitation reaches 46 cm, and the precipitation increases in the summer months, while the western coast region sees rain in the winter And, the average precipitation is less than 20 cm within 21% of the lands, and more than 60 cm falls within 31% of the country’s geographical area.
The estimated number of South African residents is 54,300,704 people, according to the statistics of 2016, and the population was distributed to various ethnic groups based on the statistics of 2014; and from the ethnic groups, the population is of African origin by 80.2%, and the population of Asian origins from India increased by 2.5 %, And a group of official languages are used in South Africa according to 2011 estimates; the most important of them are Zulu, African, English, and other languages.