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Turkey is the station and the important center linking the north to the south and east to the west, which occupies a central position between the European and Asian continents and borders the African continent, and its capital, Istanbul, was the capital of the Ottoman Islamic caliphate for a period of nearly five centuries that ended with the fall of the Ottoman caliphate and transformed the country into the Turkish Republic, with a population of approximately 75 One million people, and has a distinct climate as it is a country that lives the four seasons at the same time.

Distinctive cities and landmarks in Turkey

Turkey is the tourist destination for many tourists, especially from the Arabs, and its enormous infrastructure and picturesque nature have made it the main destination for tourists from neighboring countries, in addition to being Islamic countries open to all civilizations, and among the wonderful beautiful cities that are recommended to visit:

The capital, Istanbul

Istanbul is considered the first stop for tourism coming to Turkey, due to its great historical value, as it was in the old capital the Byzantine state and it was called Constantinople and then it became the capital of the Islamic caliphate and its Islamic names Astana and Islambol. Istanbul is also the economic, tourist, commercial and cultural capital of the Turkish Republic, with an area of ​​its area About 1,825 square kilometers, and its population is approximately 15 million.

Among its famous and distinctive features is the Hagia Sophia Museum, which was the largest church and central church for the Orthodox Christians, then around a mosque in the Ottoman period and was converted to a museum in 1934 AD in the time of the Republic, and one of the beautiful monuments is the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the Blue Mosque) and this name was called because its inner lining It is dominated by the blue color, and there are also monuments of the Sulaymaniyah Mosque. It was built in the year 1558 AD at the instigation of the great Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the architecture of Sinan, which is an architectural and engineering masterpiece, the palace of the Sultans (Dolma Beheshta). This palace was built by order of Sultan Abdul Majeed I in 1865. May Our Lady was the seat of the Ottoman Sultans until the year 1922 AD, its construction cost nearly 5 million Ottoman liras, which is approximately 35 tons of gold today, the Yildiz Saray Palace. This palace was built in 1790 AD by order of Sultan Selim III and was used by Sultan Abdul Hamid The second is the seat of the sultans and it is located in the Besiktas region, which is a wonderful beauty, the Museum of the Topkapi Saray, and it contains many diverse Islamic monuments, especially the Ottoman ones, and it has symbolic entry fees for tourists, and the Mosque of Ayyub Sultan. Who was martyred on the walls of Istan Paul made his first attempts to conquer Constantinople, and the beautiful areas of Istanbul include the Bosphorus Bridge, Taksim Square, the Eminonu District, Mina Turk, Hill of Puppets, and Princesse Island.

Bursa city

It is the first capital of the Ottoman countries and the fourth Turkish city in terms of population and the second Turkish city after Istanbul in the importance of tourism and trade because it is located entirely on the Sea of ​​Marmara, and the city contains many historical and natural monuments with an area of ​​11,043 square kilometers and a population of approximately 3 million people.

One of the famous landmarks of the city is the Great Mosque. It was built during the time of Sultan Beyazid I in 1399 AD when Bursa was the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and it consists of twenty domes with an area of ​​more than 5000 square meters, and it is one of the oldest mosques built in the Ottoman era, and one of the beautiful monuments is Uludag Mountain which is Its height is about 2500 meters and its length extends up to 40 km, and its exposure ranges between 15-20 km. This mountain is considered the largest and largest in the borders of the Sea of ​​Marmara. Turkey built the road to Uludag Mountain in 1933 AD and it became a great tourist destination for skiing and cable car ride, and it is a landmark Beautiful in the stock exchange Big and small waterfall, Luna Park, Cave and Eilat springs, which is the third largest cave in Turkey with a length of 700 meters and a width ranging from 25 to 55 meters.

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