Where is Damascus?

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The Syrian Arab Republic is one of the distinguished Arab countries, which are located within the Middle East region in Western Asia; it is bordered to the east by the State of Iraq, to ​​the west by the Mediterranean, Lebanon and Palestine, as it is bounded to the south by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and to the north by Turkey. Syria is characterized by its beautiful and ancient cities, among which the most important is Damascus. Syria was the focus of the attention of the colonists for its location in the middle of the Arab world, as it links the continent of Asia with the two continents Africa and Europe, and overlooks the Mediterranean basin, as it was a destination for traders and a passage between the three continents of the world.


Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is located in the southeastern plain of the eastern Lebanon mountain range, and is located on the western border of the Syrian Badia that extends to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Damascus is characterized by abundant water in it and coming in the form of springs and rivers, which made its soil fertile and very suitable for agriculture, and this also led to the prosperity of urbanization in it.

History of Damascus

The city of Damascus is considered one of the oldest cities that were built in the world, where Yaqout al-Hamwi indicates in his book the lexicon of countries that who built it is Damascene bin Qani bin Malik bin Arfakhdh bin Sam bin Noah and therefore it was named after his name, while some other accounts indicate that The one who built it was Lazarus, Ghulam Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and they inferred that the name Azar was mentioned in the book of the Torah in Lazarus of Damascus. For his part, Ibn Asaker emphasized the city’s footprints in the first volume of his book History of the City of Damascus by saying: “The first wall placed on the face of the earth after the flood was the Harran, Damascus, and then Babylon” walls.
Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad caliphate in 661 AD, but during the reign of the second Abbasid state, the Tulunids took control of Damascus, and after them the Ikhshidis, and various civilizations continued to control the city of Damascus until it reached the rule of the Ottoman Empire in 1561 AD, and Damascus remained under its control for 400 years Until Prince Faisal bin Sharif Hussein bin Ali, who liberated it from the Ottoman authority, introduced the Syrian kingdom and made Damascus its capital in the year 1920 AD.
The Syrian Kingdom remained under the French mandate under the Sykes-Picot Treaty in 1916 AD, and the French forces were able to enter it after the famous Battle of Maysaloun led by Commander Yusuf al-Azma, and remained under this mandate until 1946 when the French forces left the country and became completely independent.


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