history of Egypt

Throughout the centuries, Egypt has gone through many ancient civilizations, due to Egypt’s position on the Mediterranean Sea, the presence of the Nile River in it and its coastal borders with the Red Sea, in which the Pharaonic civilization was unable to describe the glory of this civilization, and the effects of which are so far attested to the greatness The Pharaohs, and Egypt also emerged in the Islamic civilization as it was the gateway to conquest to Africa, and the mosques still talk about the glory of the Islamic civilization, and these monuments are centered in Cairo that was established during the era of Islam by the leader Johar Skalli, it is necessary to stop in Cairo to talk about its historical effects .

Historic monuments in Cairo

Pharaonic antiquities

There are three famous pyramids in Cairo, specifically in Giza: the pyramid of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World as well as the Sphinx.

The pyramid of Khufu (King Khufu)

It is the largest pyramid and its construction dates back to the era of the Fourth Dynasty. It is attributed to the second king of this family, King Khufu, and the height of this pyramid reaches 146 meters and is the greatest building on the face of the earth. The Great Pyramid was known as the pyramid of Khufu, where the name of the king was engraved on the throne, and it was called a pyramid Sister Khufu, i.e. Khufu skyline, due to its high altitude.

Khafre’s Pyramid

It is located southwest of the pyramid of Khufu, and Khafra is the son of King Khufu, which is the fourth king in this fourth family. The height of this pyramid is 143.5 meters. The pyramid is called the Great Pyramid, and it has two entrances from the northern side. At the top of its summit there is a piece of the garment of this king. Khafre abound with makeshift catacombs.

Menkaure Pyramid (Menkaure)

Mankawarah means the holy word, and the pyramid is attributed to Mankawarah, who is the son of King Khafra, and it is sixty and a half meters high. This king was buried in a wooden coffin engraved with his name, which is now found in the British Museum.


It is a statue built by King Khafra in the form of a human face, the body of a lion and its length reaches forty-eight meters, and the granite stone is considered the stone from which this statue was built, and weather factors such as water and wind eroded its stones, and for this reason the pyramid underwent many restorations.

Saqqara and Dahshur pyramids

It is a listed pyramid built by King Djoser and Saqqara Pyramids that includes the tombs of many kings, the most famous of which is Ni Ankh Khnum.

Islamic antiquities

Mosque of Amr ibn al-As

It is the first mosque in Africa and it is called the ancient mosque and the crown of the mosques. It was built in the year 20 AH, and for its importance, Amr ibn al-As founded the city of Fustat, which is the first Islamic capital.

Ahmed bin Tulun Mosque

This mosque is distinguished by the Iraqi style, as a result of the establishment of Ibn Tulun in Iraq, so he wanted to build a mosque with an Iraqi character, and this is why it is the third mosque built in Egypt.

Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle

It is the most prominent Islamic landmark in Cairo, and it is known as the Citadel of the Mountain, and it is one of the most luxurious war castles in that era, and the location of the castle is important, as it oversees both Cairo and Fustat in the Mokattam Mountain, which Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi chose as the location of his castle.

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