The pyramid is defined in geometry as an anthropomorphic that has many surfaces, and is bordered by triangles that represent the faces of the pyramid, and it has a common head which is the top of the pyramid, while the base of the pyramid is a polygon consisting of the rules of the triangles forming faces, and the pyramid may be triple, quadruple or quintet, and it is a pharaonic structure of origin It is distinguished by its huge size, and the pharaonic pyramid consists of solid stones and has a quad base resulting from four triangular faces that end to the head of the common pyramid between them, and the pyramids are monuments with a pyramid shape, built by the Pharaohs to bury the kings of Egypt in it.
The period of building the pyramids started from the beginning of the era of the old state and continued until the end of the era of the Ptolemies in the fourth century AD, and the construction of the pyramids reached a peak during the era of the third family and this continued until the era of the sixth family, and despite the passage of more than four thousand years, the pyramids are still It maintains its prestige and reverence, as it gives a clear picture of the ancientity of Egyptian history, and the kings of Egypt believed that they were chosen by the gods to be mediators between them and the people and acted accordingly, so that people thought that they should keep the body of the kings intact even after their death, From this standpoint I became the pyramids Axis of the worship of the King after his death.
Before the emergence of the pyramids, the tombs of the kings were rectangular structures known as the mastaba, then the mastaba evolved to become a pyramid of form and built of stone and not of clay, and the first built pyramid was the pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara cemetery, and it reached a height of 204 m, and was surrounded by many Of temples and squares in order for Djoser to enjoy his afterlife, and the pyramids became a place for the burial of kings after that.

How to build pyramids

Although the Egyptian documents did not talk about the method of building the pyramids, recent and accurate studies of the pyramids showed that building the pyramid went through successive stages, namely:

Choose the location of the pyramid

The choice of the construction site of the pyramid was not an easy matter, it must be located on the western bank of the Nile River, where there is the kingdom of the dead, and ships carrying the stones used for construction are anchored, and the site must rise above the water level, and the area of ​​the plot of land is large and without Possible defects that may lead to cracks in the construction, and the location of the pyramid must be close to the king’s palace in order for the king to oversee the construction process.

Building site cleaning

After successful selection of the site, it is cleaned from sand until the rocks, which are the basis for building the pyramid, are exposed. Then the rocks are leveled precisely and the protrusions are removed as possible.

Locate the base of the pyramid

During this stage, the Eucharist is presented to the deities to bless the building of the pyramid, in which it is ensured that the four sides of the pyramid are facing the four original sides, and to complete this, the direction of the north is precisely determined, then the four directions of the pyramid are determined by drawing a circular wall in the middle of the pyramid site, and the top of the wall is leveled To form a clear horizontal line, after that a monk comes in the evening and before the appearance of the first star from the east draws a line from the point of appearance to the center of the circle, then follows the movement of the arc that the star draws until it reaches towards the west behind the wall, and this becomes his new direction, and from it is drawn Another line from its place to the center of the circle, Thus, until the four directions are determined precisely.

Dig the bottom and cut the stones

In this stage, the practical steps begin in building the pyramid, offering offerings to bless the building process, and the workers begin to dig a passage in the rock using balls of diorite stone known for its hardness, then the four passage walls are leveled using chisels, and the tunnel continues until it reaches the required depth and is then cut into the rock A large piece represents the burial chamber and the sarcophagus is placed in it before building the granite ceiling, in order to ensure that the sarcophagus enters it as it is too large and too large to pass through the corridor, while the corridor walls were dug in which to place thick granite doors to close the chamber.
While digging the corridor, other groups of workers work in various other tasks, for example a group of them takes on the task of writing lists of stones needed for construction and their size and then sends them to the quarries for the work to start. There are also a group of workers working in quarries and cutting stones for construction, and from the stones used for stone Limestone, granite, diorite, basalt and alabaster stones, where each type is located in a specific area handled by a group of workers, and each type of stone bears a sign indicating the working group.
After cutting the necessary stones, they are sent by large ships to the nearest place from the construction site and remain there until they are transported by another team of workers by rolling them using the wooden levers and ropes, then they end to a sleigh in which the stones are fixed, and they make them slide over the compact wooden cylinders next to each other, then The sleigh is drawn by a group of men until it reaches the place of building the pyramids.

Building the top of the pyramid

At this stage, the sides of the stones that are used in the construction are leveled and every number stone is written indicating the sequence of its use and where it is placed, and a row of limestone is placed around the place where the foundations of the pyramid will be built, and then the stone blocks that represent the external cladding of the course are placed, and the edges that may reach The number of them reached to 120 courses, and here the scholars took a look at the amazement of the height of the courses and how the higher parts of the pyramids can be built.
Accordingly, several theories emerged, the first of which is the theory of Herodotus, who received his information from one of the priests of Egypt, where he said that the upper parts of the pyramid are built by a group of wooden machines, where the stones are raised to the first course by a wooden machine and once they reach their place they settle, then the stones are raised To the second course by means of another wooden mechanism and so on, except that the scientists questioned the validity of this theory, as it requires a great time and effort if the machine itself is used, but if a special machine is used for each course, this requires a huge number of wood parts to make the machines.
Another important theory is the theory of the historian Diodor the Sicilian, which clarifies the method of building pyramids by way of ascending which is more logical than Herodotus theory, and in which a step bridge is constructed of gravel and mud, and at its height reaches the top of the pyramid and extends longitudinally sloping, and fix the gravel in its place through milk On the walls of the bridge, pieces of fine wood are placed on it to reduce friction and noise from the transfer of stones. The promise of finishing the transfer of stones is removed this way up.

Remove the bullish road

In this stage the ascending road that was used to construct the upper part of the pyramid is removed, and by using scaffolding the outer surface of the pyramids is polished, and it is said that the outer surface after its polishing is painted with a specific color, or is engraved and painted motifs, or decorated with gold, to suit the prestige and prestige of the king.

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