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The state of Egypt is located in the northeastern side of the continent of Africa. Pharaonic Egypt has flourished for about 3000 years through successive groups of rulers from the Egyptian dynasty in addition to short periods of foreign rule. The state of Egypt joined the Hellenistic world after Alexander the Great attacked and invaded Egypt in In 323 BC, during the era of the Greek Ptolemaic family, Egypt witnessed a great boom in reading and writing, especially in Alexandria.


The Pyramids of Giza is a famous site in Egypt, which is located on the west bank of the Nile River, and it consists of the Great Sphinx who guard both the following pyramids: Khufu “Khobri”, two “Green Chevrin” digs, and the “Manker” Green Misrinus, which are the pyramids of prominent rulers from The Fourth Dynasty around 2550 BC, limestone and granite were used in its construction, and many theories have been assumed about how to build pyramids without the help of modern machines, however, the secret of building the pyramids remains mysterious.

History of the pyramids

The Greek historian Herodotus stated that it took about 100,000 men for 20 years to build the Great Pyramid, but archaeologists in the late twentieth century concluded that it was built by 20,000 workers, and that in ancient times and the Middle Ages the three pyramids were attacked.

The Great Pyramid

The pyramid of Khufu is the tallest man-made structure until the year 1800 AD, as each side expresses the directions of the compass which is north, south, east, and west. Visitors can also enter the Great Pyramid by passing through the pyramid itself. The largest pyramid consists of about 2.3 million blocks of Stone, weighing approximately 5.75 million tons.

Sentry Pyramid

The pyramid of Khafri, which is called “Chevrin”, is the second pyramid. It was built by Khufri Ibn Khufu, and it is located to the southwestern side of the pyramid of Khufu.

The Menkor Pyramid

The third pyramid, the Menkor pyramid, which is called “Mesrinus”, is considered the smallest of the three pyramids, and was built at a height of 67 AD by Ibn Khafri Mankur.


It is a statue of a creature that does not exist in reality. It has the head of a man and the body of a lion. It is 20 meters high and 73.5 meters long. It is located in front of the Great Pyramid. It is likely that its sculpture dates back to 4,500 years ago.
The material from which the Great Sphinx was constructed is the limestone, which is located on the Giza Plateau and is located on the west bank of the Nile River. Egypt.

Abu Simbel

Abu Simbel is a village located in the south of the State of Egypt and is home to the temples of Abu Simbel which are called “Nubian Antiquities”, which were made of rocks. The Abu Simbel temple has become a site of world heritage declared by UNESCO, and the beginning of the construction of this temple was The construction of the “synagogue complex” in 1264 BC, and the construction period took about 20 years, despite the length of its construction that took a long time. The temples collapsed and were covered in sand until the year 1813 AD, and the Swiss orientalist Jean-Louis Burckhardt discovered them when he found a cornice above the temple In 1964, UNESCO supported the removal and reinstatement of b The Abu Simbel temple, which was attacked by the high water level of the Aswan Dam, which took four years, during which the temples were raised and dismantled to an altitude of more than 60 meters above the slope of the sandstone, where they were originally built about 3000 years ago, and the interest of UNESCO in the Abu Temple Simble to his long and rich history.

Abu Simbel site

The ancient temples of Abu Simbel are located about 290 km from the city of Aswan, which is located in the southern part of the Republic of Egypt along the Nile, specifically on the western bank of Lake Nasser.

Facts about Abu Simbel

The main objective of building the Abu Simbel temple is to enhance the position of the Egyptian religion in the country, and it may represent the intelligence of the ancient Egyptian architects
In this temple, by making the sunlight illuminate the sculptures on the back wall on October 22, the date on which Ramses II was born, as well as on February 22, the date on which Ramses II was crowned on the throne. Amon Re and Re-Harakht, Ptah and Ramses II.

Karnak Temple

The Karnak Temple is located in the Republic of Egypt on the banks of the Nile River, and contains many temples that were built over a period of two thousand years, and was built by thirty of the pharaohs, and the Karnak Temple is considered the mother of all religious temples, and in the ancient times it was used to perform religious rituals like pilgrimage for a period of more than 4000 A year, and at the present time Karnak Temple is no longer a religious place but a tourist site visited by tourists, and this temple is one of the most popular tourist places in the Republic of Egypt after the Great Pyramids.

The components of the Karnak Temple

The Karnak Temple consists of four main parts, the largest part being the Crescent of Amun-ri, and it is also entered through the Sphinx, in addition to the amazing hypostyle hall that occupies the space between the towers, and this hall was built during the reign of Seti I between 1290 79. The Hypostyle Hall consists of 134 huge pillars, and the area of ​​this hall is about 54,000 square feet. The edifice is the main entrance to the temple, which was built by the Ethiopian kings in 656 BC.

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