Istanbul is the economic, touristic, and cultural capital of the state of Turkey, located in the Marmara region located in the northwestern part of the country, and is bordered on the south by the Sea of Marmara, and on the north by the Black Sea, and on the east by the Sakarya and Kocaeli governorates. On the western side, it is bordered by the province of Tekirdag, and the city is divided geographically into two parts separated by the Bosphorus Strait, as the eastern part is located in the Asian continent, and it is known as the (Kogali Peninsula), while the western part is located on the European continent, and is known as the (Chatelja Peninsula) And drive The area of the city passed by about 1830 square kilometers, divided administratively into 39 municipalities, and these municipalities are inhabited by about 14,750,771 people, according to statistics in 2020.
The main landmarks in Istanbul
Istanbul has many architectural, civilizational and archaeological monuments that are considered an important center for attracting visitors and tourists from inside and outside the city. Among the most important of these are:
- Museums: Such as:
- Hagia Sophia Museum: It is one of the prominent archaeological buildings in the city, where it is located near the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, which is located in the Sultan Ahmed area, knowing that this building represented a cathedral church, then it turned into a mosque, and in the end it was used as a museum in 1935 AD And the Hagia Sophia Museum is distinguished by its combination between Islamic civilization and various Christian civilizations, as evidenced by the presence of Qur’anic verses and Arabic writings on the walls of the museum, in addition to the presence of pictures of Jesus Christ, peace be upon him, and his mother, Mrs. Maryam.
- Topkapi Palace Museum: It is a landmark in its architectural design characteristic of the Islamic Ottoman style, represented by the presence of arches, columns, and mosaic walls, knowing that the museum includes several facilities, the most important of which are: the Sultan Ahmed III Library, and the weapon section that is used to display weapons and military tools For different eras, it also includes the glass section, the porcelain that displays the antiques made from local porcelain, the Chinese porcelain, the section of robes, the Baghdad cabin, and the Rywan cabin.
- Turkish Islamic Archeology Museum: It is found in the Ibrahim Pasha Palace in the Amin Ono area, and the museum includes in its archaeological manuscripts, carpets, metal sculptures, porcelain and woodwork.
- The Grand Palace Mosaic Museum: It is located in the market of the College of Sultan Ahmed Mosque, and is characterized by its wonderful mosaic designs, and symmetry.
- Archeology museums: It includes the Museum of Archeology, the Museum of Ancient Oriental Archeology, and the Porcelain Pavilion of China, where these museums contain artifacts, and Ottoman antiquities.
- Mosques: Which:
- Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque): It was designed by the famous architect (Muhammad Agha al-Sadafi), and it was called (Blue Mosque) to decorate its walls and floors with Chinese blue porcelain.
- The Sulaymaniyah Mosque: Built in the Sulaymaniyah district between the years 1589 AD – 1550 CE, it is the mosque that embraced the tomb of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, as it is characterized by bronze doors, domes, and windows decorated with stained glass and Arabic writings.
- Al-Fatih Mosque: It was built in the year 1470 AD, and it contains a large dome in the middle. As for the mihrab side, there is half a dome, in addition to triple domes on the outskirts of the mosque.
- Delightful Dolma Mosque: Built in 1855 AD, it consists of two tall minarets with a beautiful Turkish character, and a square square covered by a high dome.
- Other mosques: the Bayezid II Mosque, the Fatih Mosque, the Ort-Koy Mosque, and the New Mosque.
- Shortcomings: Such as:
- Dolmah Palace is bright: which was built 400 years ago in the district of Beşiktaş, and it is considered one of the prominent archaeological artifacts in Istanbul, as it contains 285 rooms, 46 salons, and 68 bathrooms, and the palace is divided into three sections, namely: the Humayun section, and the greeting salon section , And private residences, and it is worth noting that one of its beachfront fronts extends for a length of 600 m.
- The Palace of Pilarby: It is one of the archeological palaces that is characterized by the European character. The palace contains two floors of salons, private rooms, reception rooms and marine villas.
- Kojuxu Palace: It is a palace with a distinctive architectural design, and attractive, as it includes on its two floors a set of mirrors bearing the seal of Sultan Abdul Majeed, in addition to oil paintings, crystal vases, candlestick, and carpets.
- Rumeli Fort: It is located on the Bosphorus Strait opposite the Anatolian Castle, and is considered one of the ancient historical monuments in Istanbul. The fort was used in the past to protect against pirates of the White Sea and the Black Sea, then it was later used as a prison, and at the present time it becomes one of the tourist sites in The city, noting that the fort is distinguished by its construction of Izmit wood, Arielite stones from the Black Sea, in addition to the ruins of the destroyed Byzantine monuments in the surrounding area.
- Universities: Which:
- Marmara University: Where it was built in 1982 AD, and the public university is considered the second in the ranking of Turkish universities in terms of area; it includes 22 colleges, 136 academic specializations, 11 higher studies institutes and 31 centers for scientific research, and it is intended for about 60 thousand students of various nationalities.
- Istanbul Technical University: It was built in 1773 AD in the eastern region of the city, which is one of the oldest Turkish universities, and the third oldest technical university specializing in engineering sciences in the world.
- Yildiz Technical University: It was built in 1911 AD as one of the facilities of Yildiz Palace in Istanbul, and it contains about 21 thousand students.
- Other universities: including the Bosphorus University, Sinan Aga University of Fine Arts, in addition to private universities, such as: Sabancı University, Al-Fateh, Istanbul Trade, and Yedi Tepe University (the Seven Hills), and other universities.
- Bosphorus: It is one of the most prominent tourist sites in Istanbul, and Turkey in general, as this strait connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara separating the two continents of Asia and Europe, and the strait is surpassed by two suspension bridges linking each of the continents of Asia and Europe; and the two bridges are: Ataturk Bridge, which is long 1560 m, and the mid-sea height of 64 m, and the Mehmed Fatih Bridge, which is very similar to the Ataturk Bridge.
- Complexes and commercial areas: The following are the most important:
- Istinye Park Complex: It is located in Istinye, which is one of the most important and best malls in Istanbul and Europe. This complex includes shops selling vegetables, fish, groceries, restaurants, a cinema hall, and clothes shops for international and local brands.
- Nishan Tashi Street: It is one of the most lively streets in Istanbul, where many of the most expensive international brands, in addition to fast food restaurants, and accessories for women accessories are distributed on its outskirts.
- Grand Bazaar (Grand Bazaar): It is an ancient, heritage, and popular market that includes about 4000 stores, most of which specialize in selling traditional local products, such as: carpets, leather, bedspreads, Turkish utensils, sweets, and other silver or gold products.
- Forum Marmara and Forum Istanbul: These are two modern commercial complexes, located near the Ataturk Airport.
- Mall of Istanbul: It is located in Ikitli region, 15 km from Ataturk Airport, and it is considered one of the most modern malls in Istanbul, where its construction was completed in 2014 AD, and it contains many shops, restaurants, and cafes.
- Canyon Complex: It is one of the most beautiful malls in Istanbul and Turkey, knowing that it was designed with all professionalism, in order to achieve harmony between the interior and exterior areas, and with a design that allows air to pass into the complex to give a pleasant and wonderful atmosphere.