İstanbul, the Turkish city of Istanbul was known in the past with several names, the most famous of which are Byzantium, Constantinople, Astana and Islambol, and inhabited by approximately thirteen million and four hundred thousand people. Therefore, it is the second city in the world in terms of population, and the first at the level of Turkey in terms of population, and is called the metropolis. Its area amounts to one million eight hundred thirty thousand and ninety two square kilometers, and its height above sea level is more than one hundred meters.
In 2010, the city of Istanbul held the title of a common capital of European culture, and it won the inclusion of its historical landmarks in the list of world heritage sites. The city holds several titles, including New Rome and the city of the Seven Hills. Istanbul takes the northwestern part of the Turkish Marmara region as its location, and it is split. The city is divided into two parts due to the presence of the Bosphorus strait. Therefore, it is considered a city that brings together two continents at the same time, as its western part extends from Europe to its eastern part in Asia, and geographically it is considered the closest to the northern Anatolian rift. Sea of Marmara.
Istanbul is affected by a mild climate, due to its presence in a region with a climate change, that is, between several regions with climate diversity, some of which are dominated by the oceanic climate and others by the Mediterranean climate, and its summer is hot with high humidity, and temperatures remain at their annual rates in July and August approximately It is 28 ° C in winter, and it is characterized by freezing cold and high humidity, and the regions are experiencing snow.
The city of Istanbul is characterized by its cloudy atmosphere throughout the year, especially in the morning, but at noon the fog fades, but the dominant characteristic is that it is foggy on most days, especially in all seasons of the year except summer.
The historic city of Istanbul hosts a number of architectural monuments, including:
- The verse of Sofia: It is a museum, which was at the beginning of his reign the Orthodox Patriarchate Cathedral, and with the advent of the armies of the Islamic conquest it was converted into a mosque, and in 1934 AD it was converted into a museum in conjunction with the declaration of the country as a secular state.
- Sultan Ahmed mosque: The construction of this mosque dates back to the reign of Sultan Ahmed I who ruled the area between 1609 and 1616 AD. It is also called the Blue Mosque in relation to the adornment of its land with blue tiles, and it includes the tomb of Sultan Ahmed I.
- Obelisk of Thutmose III: This obelisk came from the Temple of Karnak on the southern side of the seventh edifice at the beginning of its command to Alexandria by order of Emperor Constantius II on the occasion of the twenty years since his assumption of power, and with the advent of Emperor Theodosius I ordered his transfer to Constantinople.
- The new mosque: Its construction dates back to 1597 AD and occupies a location on the strait of the Golden Horn to the south of the Galata Bridge. It is called by several names, including the Yeni Mosque and the Sultan’s Mother Mosque, and it is considered one of the most famous monuments in Istanbul.
- The High Gate Palace: The sultans of the Ottoman Empire took their headquarters for a period of four hundred years, and the date of its construction dates back to 1459 AD, thanks to Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. Today, it has become a tourist attraction from all parts of the world, and it contains sacred monuments inside it.
- Yildiz Palace, Sultan Abdul Hamid II took the headquarters of Yildiz Palace, and its construction dates back to 1880 AD, and it is considered as the first house for rest and recuperation.
- Chora Museum.
- Fethiye Mosque.
- Bosphorus Bridge.
- Tolma Baghma Palace.
- Galata Tower.
- Ortakoy Mosque.
- Rumeli Castle Siege.
- Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge.
- The Master of the Lords’ Palace.
- Gray Falcon Channel.