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Istanbul is one of the largest Turkish cities, and the second largest city in the world in terms of population. The population of the city is approximately (13.4) million, in addition to being the economic, cultural and financial center of the state of Turkey. Administratively, Istanbul consists of (39) provinces, located on the Bosphorus Strait in the northwest of the country, and it is the only city that lies between two continents (the continent of Asia and the continent of Europe), and it is called more than one name: Constantinople, Byzantium, Islambul, and Astana.
The importance of Istanbul
Istanbul was the capital of many empires that settled in the region. In the period between (330-395 AD) it was the capital of the Romen Empire, and in the period between the periods (395- 1204 AD) and (1261-1453 AD) the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and in the period between (1204-1261) was the capital of the Latin Empire, and in the period between (1453-1922 AD) the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and for its historical and touristic importance it was added to the list of World Heritage sites (UNESCO) during 1985, and in 2010 AD it was chosen as a common capital of European culture .
Sights in Istanbul
The Hagia Sophia Church is considered one of the most famous tourist areas in Istanbul and Turkey in general in terms of its urban design, as it is the greatest church built in the Byzantine era, then it was converted to a mosque during the era of the Ottomans, where they added four minarets, then it was converted in (1935 AD) to a museum The history of the region by the founder of modern Turkey “Mustafa Ataturk”, which contains Christian and Islamic monuments as historical treasures.
Hagia Sophia is distinguished by mosaic panels suspended on the walls and floors in luxurious marble. It also contains (40) stained glass windows, located on four columns; each column is (24) meters high, and reaches a height of (56) meters and a diameter of (31) meters. . Hagia Sophia is located in the Al-Fateh area opposite the Sultan Mosque.
Dolma Palace Bahceseh
Located in Besiktas, inside Istanbul, it is one of the artistic masterpieces that combined Western and Eastern style in design and architecture. This palace is located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait, the area on which the palace was built was a seaport, which was submerged in dirt during the seventeenth century AD to turn it into a garden for sultans, and was called “a dizzying globalization” i.e. the stuffed garden, and in (1843 AD) Sultan Abdul Majid I ordered The building of this palace took 13 years to build.
It is a palace that was built by order of the Conqueror Sultan, and it is called the High Gate Palace, and it is considered one of the most important tourist and historical areas in the region, with an area of approximately 700 thousand square meters, and it is surrounded by fences of approximately (5) kilometers long, which have been converted There is a museum in which there is the sword of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and parts of his honorable beard, the swords of the rightly guided caliphs, the turban of our master Joseph, peace be upon him, and many old Arab, Iranian and Ottoman weapons.