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Nicosia is the capital of both north and south of the island of Cyprus, it is divided into the Turkish sector Lefkosa and the Greek sector Lefkosia by the border known as the Green Line, located on a river Pedieos On the central plains of the island of Cyprus, it is currently the largest and most populous city on the island, and is a major center of art, culture and trade. Agricultural crops in Nicosia include wheat, barley, vegetables and fruits. As for livestock, it depends on raising goats and sheep. Nicosia is well known for its light industries such as manufacturing and processing cotton yarns, textiles, leather, pottery, plastics, sweets, soft drinks, shoes and clothing.
History of Nicosia
- Nicosia was a kingdom in the 7th century B.C.
- It was called Pedra or Ledra in antiquity, and was the residence of the Lusignan Kings from 1192.
- After the Venetians occupied it, they demolished most of the monuments, including churches and palaces, and the buildings were used to fortify the city against the Ottoman conquest, and three gates spanning three miles were built and the first of which was the Kyrenia Gate in the north that remains the same today, the Famagusta Gate in the east and the Paphos Gate In the West, despite all these fortifications, the Ottomans did not prevent it from being overthrown in 1570.
- It was the scene of bitter conflicts in the period before the independence of Cyprus in 1960, and it has become since the Turkish invasion in 1974 within the borders of the United Nations buffer zone as part of the northern sector of the country.
- After its conquest, the city gained new vitality, and built mosques, baths and other institutions.
The climate in Nicosia is hot to dry in the summer, with average temperatures between 1.1 ° C and 42.8 ° C, while in winter the climate tends to be moderate with humidity with an average temperature of between -5.6 ° C and 28.3 ° C, and the average rainfall ranges to 30.8 centimeters annually.
Education in Nicosia
Nicosia contains many universities, the most important of which are: Frederick University, University of Cyprus, University of Nicosia, Open University in Cyprus, Near East University, Mediterranean University and Cyprus International University.
Monuments in Nicosia
- The Cyprus Museum, located to the west of the city wall, displays the best Cypriot monuments from the 9th century BC to the end of antiquity.
- Saint Sophia Church whose name was changed to the Selimiye Mosque in honor of the Ottoman Sultan Selim II in 1954.
- The Byzantine Museum contains many Orthodox art collections.
- The National Struggle Museum documents the history of the Cyprus independence movement, between 1955 and 1959.
- A museum of the history of the Cyprus currency instrument which displays hundreds of modern and ancient coins dating back nearly 3000 years.