The city of Calcutta (English: Kolkata) was the capital of India before New Delhi, during the period between the years (1772-1911), and the city of Calcutta is one of the largest Indian cities, and one of its most important sea ports, while the number of its population has reached 4,486,679 people according to general estimates 2011 AD. The city is located on the eastern shore of the Hugley River, 154 km from the head of the Bay of Bengal, making it a transit point from water to land, and from river to sea.
It should be noted that the city of Calcutta developed, and became famous for trade, transport, and manufacturing, so that it became the urban center in eastern India, and due to its predominantly British-Western design, the city strives to show a unique identity for the city after its separation from British colonialism.
Calcutta has a tropical climate. The weather is warm throughout the year. Temperatures range from 27 ° C in December and January to 38 ° C in April and May, which leads to Tourists choose winter to visit them instead of summer.
The average annual rainfall in Calcutta is about 1,625 mm, and the rains are concentrated during the months from June to September, that is, during the monsoon period, and the rains are heavy, which makes it a very wet period. In the winter period, the rains are relatively low and the sun’s rays are suitable for the outlet and the temperatures are moderate, except that the night times are cooler, as the average night temperature in the Calcutta winter is 15 ° C.
Calcutta gained its economic importance through its strategic location as a major port. It became one of the most important economic centers in India. The city is also known for its financial, commercial, manufacturing, printing and publishing activities, in addition to its important role in the Indian financial market, besides it is famous for many products. Including: Indian jute, charcoal, tea, tobacco, textiles, and others. Despite the great economic activity in the city, the problem of unemployment has been on the rise since the 1950s.