Table of Contents


The State of Egypt is considered a long history of various human civilizations, such as the Pharaonic civilization, the Greek civilization, the Romenian civilization, the Coptic civilization, and the Islamic civilization. The Prophet of God, Abraham, peace be upon him, visited her, then he married Mrs. Hajar on the land of Egypt, and the Prophet of God Abraham, peace be upon him, who was appointed minister, and Jacob Peace be upon him, and God Almighty spoke to Moses, peace be upon him, on the land of Egypt. Mrs. Maryam and Jesus, peace be upon him, made a historic trip in Egypt.

Giza Pyramids

The Pyramids of Giza were erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile near Giza in northern Egypt, and in ancient times they were listed among the Seven Wonders of the World, and the ancient monuments of the Memphis region, including the Pyramids of Giza, Saqra, Dashhar, and Abrou Rouish, And Abu Hayr, it was collectively classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 AD.

The middle pyramid of Khafreya, the fourth of the eight kings of the Fourth Dynasty, has a height of 216 meters on each side, and the southern pyramid that was built was Mankur and is the fifth king of the Fourth Dynasty, and each side measured 109 meters, and all three pyramids were looted internally and externally in ancient times and ages. The middle, and so on, the dangerous goods deposited in the burial chambers are missing, and the pyramids no longer reach their original heights because they are almost stripped of their outer shells of fine white limestone, the largest pyramid, for example, is now only 138 AD, while a guard pyramid retains the stone casing C The exterior sees only at the top, and near the pyramids was built a funerary temple, which was connected via a diagonal road to the valley temple on the edge of the flood plains of the Nile.


The largest and oldest pyramid in the group was built for Khufu and is the second king of the Fourth Dynasty, and the length of each side in its base amounts to an average of 230 m,
The pyramid of Khufu may be the most massive building ever in the tallest, and its sides are directed precisely to the four main points of the compass, and the core of the Great Pyramid consists of yellow limestone blocks, and the outer shell has almost disappeared at this time, approximately 2.3 million blocks have been used. It is a masterpiece of stone, transported, and assembled to create a structure that weighs 5.75 million tons. The interior walls, as well as those few external stones that still exist, show fine details different from any other construction constructed in ancient Egypt. This shows the skill and engineering ability that the Pharaohs possessed .
The entrance to the Great Pyramid is on the north side, and it descends with a corridor through the internal structure of the pyramid, and penetrates the rocky soil on which the temple is located, and ends in an incomplete underground room, and from the descending corridor branches of an ascending corridor that leads to a room known as the Queen’s Chamber and to a large oblique gallery Which is 46 meters long at the top of the pyramid, and there is a long and narrow passage that allows access to the king’s room, and this room is made of granite roof, and in this room two narrow shafts, it is not known whether it was designed for a religious purpose or was intended for ventilation, and above The King’s Chamber has five compartments separated by thousands of granite slabs Huge veneer, the potential purpose of these tiles was to protect the roof from the burial chamber.

The marvel of building the pyramids of Giza

The question of how to build the pyramids has not yet received a satisfactory answer, and the most credible one is that the Egyptians used a sloping and inner roof of bricks, land, and sand, which increases in length with the height of the pyramid, then stone blocks were pulled over the slope by skis, pulleys, cranes, According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, the Great Pyramid took 20 years to build, and 100,000 men participated in its creation, and this figure can be believed on the assumption that these men, who were agricultural workers, worked only on the pyramids or primarily their work, while there was Little work They had to do it in the fields, i.e. when the Nile River was flooded, and by the late twentieth century, archaeologists had found evidence that a limited workforce could have occupied the site on a permanent rather than seasonal basis, and it was indicated that at least 000 20 workers, with accompanying support personnel such as: bakers, doctors, priests, etc., will be sufficient to build the pyramid.


The Sphinx is a giant statue made of rock, and the shape of its head is like a human being and its body is like a lion, to combine the power of the lion and the wisdom of man together, and was built to protect the tombs in the pyramids.

Abu Simbel Temple

The Temple of Abu Simbel was built 3000 years ago, and it took more than 20 years to build it. Ramses II established it as a pride in himself and in honor of his wife, Nefertari, and for the ancient Egyptian deities Ra, Amon and Ptah. On the occasion of his sitting on the throne, and the second on October 22, on the occasion of the anniversary of his birth, it is worth noting that the statue of the god Ptah “the god of injustice” remains in the dark and the sun never enters him, and the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism takes care of these two days and makes them different for visitors.

Karnak Temple

The Karnak Temple is a huge complex consisting of a series of structures, and is the mother of all religious buildings. It has been a place of pilgrimage for more than 4000 years, but today the main pilgrims are only tourists.

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