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Philippines (English: Philippines); it is a country located in the southwestern side of the Pacific Ocean. The history of the discovery of the Philippines dates back to the Spanish explorer Magellan in 1521 AD, and this led to the establishment of a settlement belonging to Spain on the Philippine lands in 1566 AD, and the country was named after the Philippines after the King of Spain Philip II.
The Philippine lands witnessed many revolts against the Spanish occuAl Bahahn, and the Philippine leaders declared their independence in 1898 AD, but American colonialism arrived and left in 1935 AD, and in the time period between 1942 AD – 1944 AD it followed the Japanese occuAl Bahahn, and in 1946 AD it gained its official independence.
Manila is the capital of the Philippines
Manila is the official and national capital of the Philippines, and it is the political, economic, cultural, and social center of the country, and is located within the Luzon Island region, and the Pasig River is one of its water bodies, and it extends along the eastern sea coast of the Gulf of Manila. In 1975, a presidential decree was issued in order to achieve unity between the capital and the cities and surrounding areas within one administrative center, and it was known as the National Capital Region. The city of Manila is the main hub for development in the Philippines, especially industry-dependent, and also contains a seaport that is one of the most important ports in the Pacific region.
The city of Manila witnessed a rapid economic development after the end of the Second World War, as all its civilizational components were rebuilt, and this subsequently led to an increase in its population, and consequently a population congestion and traffic congestion with a group of other problems, which led to the application of a set of measures to contribute to reducing the impacts The negativity resulting from these problems. The city of Manila contains a set of historical and natural monuments, the most important of which are Chinatown, Casa Manila Museum, Manila Bay, Fort Santiago and Rizal Park.
The total geographical area of Manila is 633 km2. The geographical topography of the Philippines is a group of 7,107 islands. The inhabitants live on 860 islands, most of which are affected by terrestrial factors such as volcanoes, earthquakes and hurricanes.
The Philippine islands are experiencing a diversity of geographical features and terrain. Plain plains that contain volcanic soil are spread over its lands, as well as surrounded by a group of high mountains, so the mountains appear on the northern side of Luzon Island and the Kalanga tribes live near it, but on the southern side of the Philippines there are mountains Baguio of the Baguio tribes who cultivate rice within the tropics.
In the Philippines there are forests that contain a variety of fruit trees, such as: pineapple, mango, and coconut, and extends within its territory the Pagsanjan River, which is close to the canyons in its geographical form, as it does not contain river banks, and is surrounded by a valley that is covered by a group of mountain rocks, and covered by Green plants, and cities form part of the geographical forms scattered on the territory of the Philippines, the most important of which are Quezon City, Cebu City and Manila City (the capital).
The tropical marine climate is the dominant in the Philippines, which contributes to maintaining warm temperatures most of the time, where the average annual temperature ranges between 23 – 32 degrees Celsius, while in Manila the minimum temperature reaches 21 degrees, and the greatest temperature rises It reaches 30 degrees Celsius, and the temperatures in January reach the equivalent of 24 degrees Celsius, and in June, temperatures reach 33 degrees Celsius.
The average annual humidity in the Philippines is estimated at about 80%, and it is considered a seasonal rainfall. Therefore, it witnesses a clear difference in its precipitation rates between the islands, due to the varied nature of the winds, so that the monsoon winds are blowing in the winter, while in the summer the southwest monsoon is blowing. Most heavy rain falls on the eastern coasts in winter, but in summer the precipitation becomes on the western coasts, and the average annual rainfall ranges between 96 – 406 cm.
The estimated population of the city of Manila is 12,946,000 in 2015, according to the United Nations, and this number is out of the total population of the Philippines, which is estimated at 102,624,209 people according to the statistics of 2016, and based on statistical estimates for the year 2000 AD the population was divided into ethnic groups, namely: 28.1%, Cebuano by 13.1%, Heligeneon by 7.5%, and other minorities by about 25.3%.
Religions are distributed in the Philippines as follows: Catholic Christianity is the most prevalent at 82.9%, the Muslim population constitutes 5%, and the Filipino language is the official language in the country, and English is also used as a second official language. Government spending on education in 2009 reached 2.7%, while health spending in 2014 reached 4.7% of GDP.
The economic sector in the Philippines was able to withstand the global economic crises because of its lack of direct dependence on foreign securities, and the use of financial returns resulting from exports was reduced, and consumption in the Filipino society also witnessed flexibility that helped to balance the accounts, with the emergence of stability in the banking sector , And appropriate levels of international financial reserves. The city of Manila contributes to many diverse products, such as: textiles, coconut oil, chemicals, and food industries, as it is the main and commercial port of the country.
Several governmental efforts have emerged to support tax administration and follow-up expenditures in the Philippines, which contributed to reducing the impact of debt on the Philippines, with the emergence of difficulty in financing the fiscal deficit, but the Philippine economy witnessed an exponential growth in the time period between the years 2011 -2015 AD at a rate of 6% Also, the percentage of foreign direct investments increased, with a decrease in the unemployment rate during the last period and reached 6.5%, and it is shared by an employment rate ranging between 18% -19% of the percentage of workers in the country.
Nearly 60% of the population in the Philippines lives within poor rural areas, and directly depends on agriculture as the main source of income. Therefore, the Philippine government has been keen to support both transportation, health, and education within the social programs to support the poor in the country, but the economic infrastructure continues to suffer From the inability to achieve financing, with the Philippine government’s reliance on investment in the private sector, which contributes to supporting several major projects within the private-public partnership in the country.