Spain is known (in English: Spain) as a European country that forms the largest part of the Iberian Peninsula, and is considered the third largest country in the continent of Europe, bordered by its four borders, France, Andorra, the Mediterranean, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Portugal, and its borders are considered close From the borders of the Atlantic Ocean, and it shares maritime borders with Morocco.
The capital of Spain
Madrid is the official and national capital of the government and financial center of Spain, and Madrid reflects Spanish public policy since the royal era of King Philip, who dates back to the sixteenth century AD. There are many factors that led to the choice of Madrid as the capital of Spain, the most important of which is its relatively neutral position in relation to other Spanish cities, as it does not fall on any major river course, and this is one of its other advantages that are not similar to the majority of Spain’s cities.
Madrid is located on a plateau consisting of mud and sand, as the city witnessed a clear change in its features, especially with the succession of periods of government, and the emergence of many buildings that represent the different cultures that formed part of its society at one time, and the city also contains a group of small roads that constitute Sub-roads between various buildings and residential complexes, which contributed to the emergence of clear urban planning for its public features.
Spanish history is widely diversified due to the successive civilizations of its rule, as it was known by many names in the past, so the Phoenicians called it a transparent name, but during the era of Arab Islamic rule it was known as Andalusia, and in the current rule it is known by its name Spain as it is used in Spanish.
The Arab Islamic conquest is considered one of the most important historical stages in the history of Spain, as the Muslim leader Musa bin Naseer commissioned the Arab knight Tariq bin Ziyad an army to open Andalusia (Spanish lands), and his army was able to cross the strait region between Spain and North Africa which is now known as the Strait of Mount Tariq. The Arabs contributed to organizing the regions in Spain and the existing societies therein, as the Spanish Arab states became prosperous in many political, social and economic fields.
The Arab presence in Spain faced great fragility in its last era, especially after the union of the two kingdoms of Araguan and Castile to attack the Kingdom of Granada, the last Arab kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. The matter came to its handover in 1492 AD, and as a result, the Arabs lost the land of Andalusia.
Spain is currently characterized by a remarkable development in many areas. The political and economic conditions witnessed a clear development, especially in the late twentieth century AD, and after the end of the world wars and the Spanish Civil War, Spain also has excellent relations with many countries of the world, as it is She participates in international and international conferences since the formal return to the monarchy in 1975.
The total geographical area of Spain is 504,759 km², and its terrain is divided into seven regions, namely:
- MesetaIt is a large plateau that covers part of the territory of Spain, and contains a group of plains separated by mountains and hills from each other.
- The northern mountainsIt is a group of mountains that cover the northern region of Spain, and its extension forms the link between the Atlantic Ocean and coastal plains, the most famous of which are the mountains of Galicia, the Cantabria Mountains, the Pyrenees mountains, and others.
- The Ebro BasinIt is a basin consisting of plains extending near the Ebro River. This river is considered one of the longest rivers in Spain, which connects the northern mountains and the Atlantic Ocean.
- Coastal plains: It is a plains located beside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and forms a group of agricultural plains that were used in the past to establish irrigation systems for crops.
- Great Valley Basin: It is a basin located in the southwestern region of Spain, specifically in the part of the Atlantic Ocean, and is used for agricultural work.
- Balearic IslandsThey are islands located 80 km to 230 km east of the Spanish mainland, a group of islands of various sizes, between large and small, which are Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, and in its southern coast its plains extend from mountains to hills.
- Canary Islands: They are islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and they consist of seven islands, the most famous of which are Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, and others.
The prevailing climate in the Spanish regions is diverse, with most being sunny and dry throughout the year, and most other regions are classified as weather fluctuating between cold winter and summer heat, while average temperatures rise to more than 27 ° C in July. In January, the average temperature may reach less than one centigrade below zero, and rainstorms appear on most winter days, and snow falls on high areas in Spain, especially in the northern mountains.
The estimated number of the population of Spain is approximately 48,563,476 inhabitants. As for the origins of the population, it belongs to the ethnic groups that came from the Mediterranean and northern Europe. The Castilian Spanish language is the national language spoken by the population at 74%, and a group of languages constitute the culture of Spanish society, the most important of which is the Catalan language, the Galician language, and other other traditional languages.