The Arab Republic of Egypt is an Arab country located in the heart of the Arab world. Egypt is considered a world historical archive of civilizations, as it established on its soil the oldest international civilizations since 3200 BC, and these civilizations were distinguished by their diversity and continuity over many centuries. Among the most prominent civilizations that existed on the land of Egypt are the Pharaonic, Romen, Greek, and Byzantine civilizations. In the seventh century AD, Islam entered Egypt and established an ancient Islamic civilization as well.
Egypt is distinguished by its strategic location, as it overlooks from the north the Mediterranean Sea, and from the east to the Red Sea, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula, and is bounded on the south by the State of Sudan, and on the west by the Libyan Republic. Egypt is classified as a large country, with a total area of 1,001,450 km2, and it is thus the 30th most populous country in the world, as it includes the Nile, the longest river in the world. Depending on the vast area covered by Egypt, the topography and geography of it vary from river and sea to desert.
tourism in Egypt
The tourism sector in Egypt is considered one of the most important and prominent sectors in the Egyptian economy, which attracts millions of tourists annually. According to the figures for 2015, the Egyptian tourism sector contributed in a total amount of 112.1 billion Egyptian pounds (14,334,271,350 billion dollars), contributing 11.4% of the gross domestic product to the state. The proportion of tourism investments in the same year amounted to 2,158,144,050 billion dollars, thus constituting 12.5% of the total investments in the country. Tourism spending in 2015 in Egypt reached 57.5 billion Egyptian pounds (3,173,741,250 billion dollars), contributing 20.7% to the country’s gross domestic product. The tourism sector in Egypt also contributed 2,620,000 jobs, or 10.5% of the total number of employees.
Tourist attractions in Egypt
Egypt includes many important and attractive monuments that constitute tourist attractions for all who are interested in studying the history of the region from all over the world. Among the most important tourist attractions that exist on this land are the following:
The Pyramids of Giza are among the most important tourist and historical monuments in Egypt, and one of the oldest monuments that still exist today. The pyramids of Giza consist of three pyramids, namely the pyramid of Khufu, the pyramid of Khafre, and the pyramid of Menkaure. The pyramid of Khufu, the largest pyramid, is one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. The pyramid entered the list of the seven wonders of the worldly high for its towering height and great construction, where the height of each side of the pyramid is 231 meters, and the weight of each brick in the pyramid reaches 2.5 tons, while the full weight of the pyramid reaches 6 million tons.
The pyramids are located in the Egyptian region of Giza, that is, in the western region of the Nile. The pyramids are considered one of the important royal tombs in Egypt, which includes the bodies of the pharaohs who successively ruled Egypt. So far more than 100 pyramids of ancient Pharaohs have been discovered. The pyramids were built between 2055-1650 BC, and the last pyramid continued to be built between 1550-1525 BC.
Abu Simbel (English: Abu Simbel) is an archeological site that contains two temples: the small temple, and the large temple, carved into the rocks. The temples were built during the reign of Ramses II in the period 1279-1213 BC. The reason for building the temples is due to the celebration of the victory of Pharaoh Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh, where the great temple of the god Ra-Horakhty, the god Ptah, and the pharaoh Ramses II was built. The small temple was built for the goddess Hathor, and Nefertiti, the beloved wife of Ramses II.
The temples are located in the south of Egypt on the bank of the Nile River. The Great Temple contains four huge statues that sit at the entrance to the temple; two on each side, representing Pharaoh Ramses II and members of his family and gods, and the length of each of them is 20 meters, while the height of the temple is 30 meters, and the length is 35 meters. As for the small temple, it contains six statues carved at its entrance, representing Ramses and his wife, Nefertiti. Each statue is 10 meters long, while the temple is 28 meters long and 12 meters high.
Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings (English: The Valley of the Kings), called the Valley of the Kings (English: Gates of the King), is a site that includes the tombs of a number of ancient pharaohs and nobles and the super-rich from the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twenty ruling families. The valley houses the tombs of many prominent pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, Seti I and Ramses II, along with many queens. The tombs are ready for the next life, as they contain all the tools that buried Pharaohs might need. The valley is located on the western bank of the Nile, beside Luxor.
Karnak Temple is a complex that includes ancient statues and temples destroyed, dating back to the time of Pharaoh Ramses II. This region represented the place of worship, as it contains four main temples, the most famous and the largest of which is the Temple of God Amun. In addition to temples, the site contains many ancient monuments and statues, as well as includes historical scenes of the battles that the Pharaohs were fighting with their enemies. Karnak Temple is located in the south of Egypt, near the city of Luxor.
Philae Temple (English: Philae Temple) is a temple located in Aswan. The temple was built for the goddess Isis by Pharaoh Ptolemy II, but the Romen kings completed its construction. The temple tells the story of the goddess Isis, the wife of the pharaoh Osiris, where this goddess symbolizes the funeral rites and the gift of life. She is usually represented by a throne that she holds above her head. The word “Philae” means the end, referring to the location of the temple, which is located in the far south of Egypt.
Abydos is one of the most ancient sacred sites in Egypt, deriving its sanctity from being the center of worship of the god Osiris, as it was believed to be gates to the underworld, was a popular place for pilgrimage and burial. The site contains the temple of Seti I, and it is the most famous monuments in it. Pharaoh Seti I began construction of it, and his son Ramses II completed it. The walls of the temple contain an archaeological list engraved on the walls of the temple, which includes the names of 76 ancient Egyptian kings, which Sethi I carved to distinguish the pharaohs of kings in ancient Egypt. The site also contains many temples dedicated to the cult of the god Osiris. The temple is located in the north of Upper Egypt.
The white desert is one of the most picturesque natural places in the desert of Egypt. The area is called Al Farafra Oasis (English: Al Farafra Oasis). The region contains carved rocks in the form of giant mushrooms or cones, which were formed by erosion and erosion. Tourists head to the white desert to camp there and see the scenery. The site is located in the northeastern part of Egypt. It was anciently surrounded by water, but it was completely dried. The sedimentary layers formed the white color, which in turn formed the white desert.
Siwa Oasis is considered one of the oldest historical regions in Egypt, as it won many titles throughout the ages; it was called Centria by the ancient Arabs, as well as the Jupiter-Amun Oasis, the Nakhil Square and the Santar by the ancient Egyptians. The site contains traces of houses that make up a large gathering like the oasis. Despite the great civilization progress that Egypt is experiencing, Siwa still maintains its customs and traditions, as the population speaks their native language, which is Amazigh, alongside Arabic, and women wear the traditional costume of the region.
The Great Sphinx (in English: The Great Sphinx of Giza) is one of the most famous and unique tourist attractions in Egypt. The statue represents the body of a lion with the head of Pharaoh of Egypt carved in the form of a large statue, reaching a length of 73 meters, and a height of 20 meters. It was built during the reign of King Khafra in approximately 2530 BC. The Sphinx is located next to the Three Pyramids of Giza, and the statue is believed to have been built to protect the Pharaonic tombs inside the pyramids from evil spirits, hence the Arabic name for the Sphinx.
Khan El-Khalili is considered one of the most famous Egyptian neighborhoods, and it is located within the area known as Old Cairo, where this neighborhood is considered a very main tourist attraction in Cairo, the Egyptian capital. One of the things that distinguishes this Khan is the presence of many important and vital bazaars, in addition to the presence of many popular restaurants and cafes as well, which enriched this neighborhood and made him all this great value.
Al Azhar mosque
The Al-Azhar Mosque is considered one of the most important mosques, not only at the level of Egypt, but also at the level of the entire Islamic world, and besides being a university it is also considered a university. Al-Azhar has a great value throughout Islamic history. This great mosque was established by the essence of the Sicilians, when Cairo was opened in the tenth century AD, and it was ordered to build this mosque, the Fatimid caliph al-Muizz, the religion of God. The first prayer was held on 7 Ramadan 361 AH / 972 AD, and it was Friday prayer.
The Egyptian Opera House
This ancient house is considered the alternative to what was known as the Khedive Opera House. This house was built during the era of Khedive Ismail, due to the official opening of the Suez Canal, but it was burned in 1971 AD. Modern house was prepared for its construction in the twentieth century, in cooperation with the Japanese International Cooperation Agency.
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