What is the capital of Italy before Rome

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Italia

Italy (English: Italy), and officially known as the Italian Republic (English: the Italian Republic), is a European country, the northern part of which is located in southern Europe, while the southern part consists of a peninsula, located in the Mediterranean, in addition to the two islands of Sicily And Sardinia, as the Republic includes two independent states within its territories, namely San Marino and the Vatican City.

The total area of ​​Italy is approximately 301,340 km2, bordered to the north by the countries of France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. The population of the Italian Republic is 59,433,744, according to the 2011 census.

Rome is the capital of present-day Italy

Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic, and its largest city in terms of population. The total area of ​​the city is 1,507.6 km2, and the population of the city is 2,864,731 people, according to 2015 estimates. The city of Rome is located in the center of Italy, specifically in the southwestern part of the peninsula of Italy, and it is bordered on the east and north by several Italian cities, and bordered on the south and west by the sea Tarana (also known as the Tyrrhenian Sea).
Rome has a very ancient and ancient history that dates back to prehistoric history. This twin city, Romulus and Remus, was founded in 753 BC, and they are the sons of the god who practiced the god of war in Roman mythology. Romulus killed his brother, became the king of the city, and was named after him, and after him was followed by seven kings, and Rome was transformed into a republic, as the republic began to expand, and fought many wars and took control of many areas, thereby gaining great power, and turned into an empire.
In the sixteenth century AD, the city of Rome witnessed the rise and spread of the Italian Renaissance, a cultural intellectual movement that moved Europe from the Middle Ages to development and modernity. The city became a cultural and intellectual center for art, and many churches and monuments were built. The city began to expand and witnessed a significant increase in the population, and many new and modern areas were built within the city walls. Rome was declared the capital of Italy in 1871,

Florence is the capital of Italy in the past

Florence (English: Florence) is the capital of Italy in the past, specifically between the years 1865 to 1870, and is now the capital of the Province of Florence and the Province of Tuscany. During the brief period in which the city was the capital of Italy, Florence was one of the most important cultural and economic centers of Europe and Italy in the Middle Ages, so the city was the prelude to the Renaissance and its place of origin, and the reason for the recovery of Europe from the eras of darkness and poverty, and was known throughout the world as a cradle of art and architecture, Exemplified by historical buildings and rich museums and their monuments, in addition to being among the most important and most beautiful cities in the world. The current population of the city is 382,808.

Geography

The city of Florence is located in the center of Italy, to the north of the city of Rome, and the ancient city of Florence is located in a low middle surrounded by the highlands, in a place of great beauty and splendor, and surrounds the city from its three sides muddy hills, and crosses the Arno River, which divides the city into the lower Arno Valley and the valley Upper Arnaud. The city’s coordinates extend between ’48 ° 43′ north, and ’12 ° 11′ east, and the city has a humid and temperate climate for most of the year. The average temperature in the city reaches 15 ° C, while the average annual rainfall is 910.7 mm annually.

Date

Florence is one of the oldest cities in history, as it was known in 59 BC, when former Roman soldiers founded the village of (Florentia). The village was the seat of the episcopate from the beginning of the fourth century AD, and was controlled by the Byzantines, the Franks, the Lombards, and the Ostrogoths. The city began to progress and prosper in the tenth century AD, and in the year 1115 AD it gained self-rule.
The city witnessed an internal struggle that led to its division in the thirteenth century AD, which took place between the Guelphs of the Roman papacy, and the Ghibelline of the Holy Roman Empire. The face of the city’s development and prosperity, as it became one of the most powerful and prosperous cities in Europe, and its golden coin, which is called (fluorine), had the greatest impact on this prosperity, as this currency overcame its rival (Pisa).
Florence became the capital of Italy in 1865 AD, on the basis of the September agreement, but this decision soon moved to become Rome as the capital in 1870, after its joining the Kingdom. The population of the city doubled in the nineteenth century AD, and in the twentieth century the number increased three times as many, especially after the prosperity of trade, tourism and the economy in general.

tourism

The city of Florence is characterized by ancient monuments, flourishing with the history of civilization, as well as the picturesque nature and rivers, which makes it a favorite tourist destination for many, as the city includes many ancient museums that display the history of the city and the civilizations that passed through, among the most important of these museums: the National Archaeological Museum, and the Palace Vecchio, and others. The city also contains many religious churches, most notably: the Cathedral of Florence, the Church of Santa Maria Novella, the Church of St. Lorenzo, and other churches.

The reason for changing the capital

In the nineteenth century, many social and political movements calling for the unity of Italy and the elimination of the French and Austrian occupation of its lands, and the most prominent wars and revolutions that took place on Italian soil to liberate them were: the Carbonari rebellion (1820-1821), the rebellion movement 1830, and revolts (1848-1849) ), The War of 1859, and the Seven-Week War (1866). These wars continued until 1870, when the Franco-Prussian war broke out, and Napoleon, who withdrew his French forces from Rome, was defeated by their last stronghold, and the city was opened and the capital transferred to it.

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